Ingber DE.Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again.FASEB J. 2006 May;20(7):811-27.(HSR&T PI: D.E. Ingber)Note:
The author?s summary of the status of mechanotransduction, from the paper (figures and references removed): ?In summary, mechanochemical conversion occurs simultaneously at several sites inside cells, tissues, and organs because stresses are transferred over load-bearing networks including bones, muscles, fascia, ECMs, integrins, cell-cell junctions, cytoskeletal filaments and nuclear scaffolds that span many size scales. In fact, individual cells within most somatic tissues are too small to be distorted directly by subtle forces that are known to have potent effects on tissue form and function, such as gravity; that is, unless the cells contain dense organelles (e.g., otoliths, statoliths) that function like microscopic plumb-bobs. Cells therefore likely sense gravity and other generalized forces exerted on tissues and organs through their interconnections with ECM scaffoldings that experience stress and undergo deformation on a larger size scale; these structural changes trickle down to produce local cell and cytoskeletal distortion or changes of cellular prestress.
Willers H, Held KD.Introduction to clinical radiation biology.Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2006 Feb;20(1):1-24.(HSR&T PI: K.D. Held)
Kondrachuk AV, Boyle RD.Feedback hypothesis and the effects of altered gravity on formation and function of gravireceptors of mollusks and fish.Arch Ital Biol. 2006 May;144(2):75-87.(HSR&T PI: R.D. Boyle)
Other papers of interest:
Murphy DJ, Renninger JP, Ju H.A model of orthostatic hypotension in the conscious monkey using lower body negative pressure.J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2006 Mar 20; [Epub ahead of print]