Senate Report 110-124: NASA Excerpts - Departments of Commerce and Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill, 2008


Full Document: Senate Report 110-124 - DEPARTMENTS OF COMMERCE AND JUSTICE, SCIENCE, AND RELATED AGENCIES APPROPRIATIONS BILL, 2008


NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

Appropriations, 2007 $16,264,300,000
Supplemental appropriations, 2007 20,000,000
Budget estimate, 2008 17,309,400,000
Committee recommendation 17,459,600,000

The Committee recommendation provides $17,459,600,000 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA]. The recommendation is $1,175,300,000 above the fiscal year 2007 enacted level, including emergency supplemental appropriations, and $150,200,000 above the budget request.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was established by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) to conduct space and aeronautical research and development and to conduct flight activities for peaceful purposes. This statute was reauthorized by Public Law 109-155 on December 30, 2005. NASA's unique mission of exploration, discovery, and innovation is intended to preserve the United States' role as both a leader in world aviation and as the pre-eminent space-faring nation. It is NASA's mission to: advance human exploration, use, and development of space; advance and communicate scientific knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the solar system and the universe; and research, develop, verify, and transfer advanced aeronautics and space technologies.

NASA's vision for space exploration maps out an aggressive role for the United States in manned space exploration. However, the potential costs are substantial and will likely be very difficult to maintain at the current estimated funding levels. In addition, the Committee feels strongly that NASA must show its commitment to those human spaceflight activities already underway. The Shuttle program and the construction of the International Space Station [ISS] continue to be the primary focus of the Nation's manned space flight activities. Nevertheless, the replacements for the Space Shuttle's manned and heavy lift capabilities must also be considered as part of any plan for continued human access to space but not to the detriment of existing obligations.

The Committee is concerned that NASA will neglect areas that only tangentially benefit, or do not fit within, the exploration vision. The Committee believes that NASA must work diligently to balance existing programs and priorities with its plans for the future. Counterbalancing future priorities against current programs places existing research and expertise in jeopardy and risks squandering significant Federal investments that may be essential to the exploration vision.

In addition, the Committee is concerned that the strong, balanced science program that has served the Nation so successfully for many years is being left behind rather than being nurtured and sustained. That science program has been based on a set of carefully crafted scientific strategies that are founded on scientific and technical merit, relevance to overall national needs, and broad consultation with the scientific community.

The Committee has chosen to articulate the funding levels of programs within the account structure for NASA in the form of tables. Major mission and program funding is listed within the tables and, if necessary, supplemented with explanatory report language.

SCIENCE, AERONAUTICS, AND EXPLORATION

Appropriations, 2007 $10,086,482,000
Budget estimate, 2008 10,483,100,000
Committee recommendation 10,633,000,000

The Committee recommendation provides $10,633,000,000 for the Science, Aeronautics, and Exploration account. The recommendation is $546,518,000 above the fiscal year 2007 enacted level and $149,900,000 above the budget request. Bill language is included to provide: $5,655,110,000 for science; $554,030,000 for aeronautics research; $3,972,490,000 for exploration systems; and $521,380,000 for cross-agency support programs including education; and a $70,000,000 general reduction. Bill language also includes the following limitations on funds: $1,150,800,000 for center management and operations; $364,000,000 for corporate general and administrative costs; and $195,500,000 for institutional investments.

NASA's Science, Aeronautics, and Exploration [SAE] account provides funding for the Science, Exploration Systems, and Aeronautics Research Mission Directorates and Education Programs. The SAE appropriation includes both the direct and the indirect costs of supporting the Mission Directorates and Education Program, and provides for: research; development; operations; salaries and related expenses; design, repair, rehabilitation, and modification of facilities and construction of new facilities; maintenance and operation of facilities; and other general and administrative activities supporting SAE programs.


[In millions of dollars]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                         Committee recommendation 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Science, Aeronautics and Exploration Total                              10,633.00 
Science Total                                                            5,655.11 
Planetary Science                                                        1,366.35 
Discovery                                                                  184.85 
ASPERA-3                                                                      .89 
Dawn                                                                         7.84 
Discovery Future                                                           126.54 
Discovery Management                                                        15.57 
Discovery Research                                                          11.83 
Genesis                                                                      3.31 
MESSENGER                                                                   15.77 
Moon Mineralogy Mapper                                                       3.12 
New Frontiers                                                              147.27 
New Horizons                                                                14.53 
New Frontiers Management                                                    12.50 
Juno                                                                       120.24 
Technology                                                                  67.55 
Planetary Science Research                                                 370.51 
Advanced Concepts                                                            1.82 
Astromaterial Curation                                                       6.25 
Cassini                                                                     97.20 
Directorate Management                                                      27.35 
Directorate Support--Space Science                                          41.80 
Education and Public Outreach                                               15.07 
FIRST Robotics                                                               3.99 
Hayabusa (MUSES-C)                                                            .73 
Lunar Science Rsrch                                                         26.97 
Planetary Data System                                                       11.65 
Planetary Science Research and Analysis                                    133.69 
Rosetta                                                                      4.01 
Mars Exploration                                                           596.16 
2009 Mars Science Lab                                                      345.04 
JPL Building                                                                15.16 
Mars Exploration Rover 2003                                                  5.41 
Mars Express                                                                 4.23 
Mars Global Surveyor                                                         6.68 
Mars Mission Operations                                                      1.94 
Mars Next Decade                                                            17.98 
Mars Odyssey 2001                                                           12.49 
Mars Program Management                                                     15.00 
Mars RandA                                                                  31.06 
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 2005                                            43.51 
Mars Scout                                                                  65.27 
Mars Technology                                                             21.04 
Phoenix (Scouts 07)                                                         11.36 
Heliophysics                                                             1,088.52 
5.15                                                                         3.06 
8.01                                                                        52.14 
50.17                                                                       15.81 
29.20                                                                      233.76 
5.87                                                                       110.42 
22.67                                                                       14.88 
10.38                                                                        7.60 
Astrophysics                                                             1,564.93 
.75                                                                          1.23 
James Webb Space Telescope                                                 545.43 
Hubble Space Telescope                                                     307.75 
Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)                    77.29 
Gamma-ray Large Space Telescope (GLAST) Program                             42.15 
Discover Kepler                                                             93.01 
5.29                                                                        10.78 
5.07                                                                         9.96 
13.00                                                                        7.00 
5.00                                                                        17.83 
Earth Science                                                            1,635.31 
51.47                                                                        1.19 
13.79                                                                        6.58 
155.88                                                                      48.50 
40.29                                                                       55.30 
9.89                                                                        13.57 
13.99                                                                       32.54 
Exploration Systems                                                      3,972.49 
235.95                                                                      64.97 
Advanced Capabilities                                                      854.93 
2.96                                                                        11.93 
4.87                                                                        59.03 
48.70                                                                      209.50 
Aeronautics Research                                                       554.03 
Aeronautics Technology                                                     554.03 
18.76                                                                       20.65 
81.20                                                                       16.88 
54.31                                                                       77.96 
57.61                                                                       30.81 
Cross-Agency Support Programs                                              521.38 
Congressionally Directed Projects                                           70.00 
18.02                                                                       10.00 
Advanced Business Systems                                                   74.34 
40.63                                                                       10.40 
11.03                                                                        9.70 
Corporate General and Administrative Reduction                             -70.00 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Earth Science- Earth science has been a critical part of the balanced space program long advocated by this Committee. The Committee remains fully committed to a robust Earth science program at NASA and the Committee expects NASA to remain fully committed to earth science, with future missions that reflect a serious commitment to Earth science as a vital part of the Nation's space program.

NASA earth science missions are critical to our ability to monitor and provide warnings about climate, weather, and other hazards. To that end, the Committee recommends an additional $25,000,000 to begin studies to implement the National Research Council's report recent `Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond.' This decadal report recommends 15 priority NASA earth science missions.

The Committee continues to expect NASA's Earth science portfolio to have a continuous mixture of small-, medium-, and observatory-class earth science missions that guarantee regular and recurring flight opportunities for the Earth science community.

Earth Science Applications Program- The recommendation includes an increase of $15,000,000 above the budget request for the NASA Earth Science Applications Program. This funding increase shall only be used to support new competitively selected applications projects to be selected during fiscal year 2008. These projects will integrate the results of NASA's Earth observing systems and earth system models (using observations and predictions) into decision support tools to serve applications of national priority including, but not limited to: Homeland Security; Coastal Management; Agriculture Efficiency; and Water Management and Disaster Management.

Earth Observing System Data and Information System- In Senate Report 109-88 accompanying the fiscal year 2006 appropriations for NASA, the Committee directed NASA to guarantee that the EOSDIS core system remain the operational foundation for all new Earth science missions. The Committee strongly reiterates this view and directs NASA to follow this direction in implementing future Earth science missions. The Committee does not support development of new, separate data systems for future Earth science missions and cautions the agency against taking further action that does not follow the guidance contained in Senate Report 109-88 or the report accompanying this act.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles [UAV] in Support of Earth Science Objectives.--The Committee initiated a program in fiscal year 2006 utilizing the unique location and assets of the Wallops Flight Facility to begin a program where UAVs would be utilized to achieve key objectives emerging out of the Earth Science Decadal Survey. The Committee strongly encourages NASA to continue this effort in fiscal year 2008.

James Webb Space Telescope- The Committee has provided the full budget request of $545,400,000 for the James Webb Telescope and directs NASA to maintain the current launch schedule.

Living With a Star- The Committee has included an additional $20,000,000 for the Living With A Star Program for the Solar Probe mission.

Joint Dark Energy Mission- The National Academy of Sciences has recommended that NASA and the Department of Energy work together to develop a Joint Dark Energy Mission [JDEM]. The Committee provides the budget request of $2,300,000 for JDEM, and strongly supports development of the JDEM through full and open competition with project management residing at the appropriate NASA center.

Landsat Data Continuity Mission [LDCM]- The Committee is concerned that the LDCM mission does not include a thermal infrared sensor to provide important data for surface and ground water information. NASA shall report to the Committee no later than 60 days after the enactment of this act with a plan to provide continuity of this data.

Independent Verification and Validation (IV and V) Center- Within the amounts provided for corporate general and administrative costs, the Committee recommends the full budget request of $27,700,000 for the NASA Independent Verification and Validation (IV and V) Center.

Constellation Systems- The Committee remains supportive of the vision for exploration and provides $950,800,000 for the Crew Exploration Vehicle [CEV] and $1,224,800,000 for the [CLV].

National Space Biomedical Research Institute- The Committee reiterates its strong support for the mission and work of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute [NSBRI], which is leading the national effort to carry out research required to assure safe human exploration in space. The fundamental and applied biomedical research performed by the NSBRI research partners will be particularly important for ensuring a safe and healthy environment while learning how to live and work on the moon in preparation for a successful manned mission to Mars. The Committee encourages the agency to extend its current Cooperative Agreement for an additional 5-year term. The Committee further directs NASA to include specific funding recommendations for this program in its annual budget justifications.

Lunar Precursor Robotic Program- The Committee provides $278,200,000 for the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program [LPRP]. The Committee believes that the program, management offices, and missions associated with LPRP are essential to the success of the anticipated manned missions to the Moon. Within these funds, $209,500,000 shall be for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and $20,000,000 shall be for the LPRP management office.

In 2005, NASA selected a team for the development of a lunar lander spacecraft consistent with the goals set forth in the Administration's Renewed Spirit of Discovery and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-155) which called for a robust lunar robotic program, including robotic lunar landers. The National Research Council's report `The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon' further supports robotic precursor missions to the Moon's surface and the valuable scientific resource such missions would provide for returning man to the Moon. The Committee agrees that the NASA selected mission is of critical importance for the exploration vision. For this purpose, $48,700,000 is provided from within funds provided to the LPRP program for the lunar lander mission.

The management office associated with LPRP shall be directly involved in the planning and oversight of future lunar robotic missions, integrating lunar data from NASA and other international missions, oversee technology development, support the Lunar Architecture Team, and lead NASA's public outreach and education activities for understanding the lunar environment.

Astronomy and Astrophysics- The Committee directs NASA to follow the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics when setting mission and budget priorities. Missions that are ranked higher in the survey should be given priority for funding over missions that are ranked lower. The Hubble Space Telescope, James Webb Space Telescope, and SOFIA missions are clearly higher priorities in the Decadal Survey than the Navigator program for interferometry technology and exoplanet-finding research. Due to the increased costs of these higher priority missions and constraints to the science budget, NASA cannot afford to carry out the objectives for the Navigator program as originally proposed several years ago. The Committee strongly urges NASA to reformulate the Navigator program toward a smaller, medium-class satellite development program to search for Earth-like planets around nearby stars while still maintaining the majority of the Decadal Survey priorities for exoplanet research.

Aeronautics- The Committee is concerned with the steady decline in the aeronautics research and technology request. Even more alarming, NASA's budget projections indicate that this trend will continue. The Committee is committed to the research NASA conducts in aeronautics, and to the benefits, both in terms of safety and economics, that will be made available to the public through NASA-led research.

National Technology Transfer Center- Within the funds provided for Innovative Partnership Programs, the Committee provides the full budget request of $2,500,000 for the continued operations of the NASA National Technology Transfer Center.

Education- NASA has a long history of supporting science, technology, engineering, and mathematical [STEM] education. This support reaches all levels of education from K-12 to graduate level. For NASA to embark on its vision for exploration there must exist a general workforce that is technically skilled as well as a wide range of scientists and engineers for NASA to draw upon. This will require exciting young minds in the areas of science, and then sustaining this excitement through college and beyond. To help accomplish this task, NASA has dedicated funds toward many education activities. The Committee directs, to the extent possible, that education funds within this account address the education needs of women, minorities, and other historically underrepresented groups.

Classroom of the Future- The Committee has provided the full budget request for the Classroom of the Future, which focuses on educational research, curriculum design, teacher development and educational outreach in the STEM disciplines.

Museums, Science Centers, and Planetariums- The Committee recommends $10,000,000 for a competitive grant program as authorized by section 616 of Public Law 109-155.

Congressionally Directed Projects- Within the amounts made available under this heading, the Committee recommends funding for the following directed programs and directs NASA to refrain from charging any administrative expenses to these projects:

Project -- Committee recommendation Requested by

  • Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL, for science and education programming for teachers and students $300,000 Durbin
  • Alabama A&M University, Normal, AL, to provide a comprehensive, diverse, and flexible pool of talent at lower labor rates in the civil service environment to facilitate research and development, studies and analyses of all areas of higher temperature advanced materials research and development - 750,000 Shelby
  • Alliance for NanoHealth, Houston, TX, to facilitate the translation of nanotechnology from the laboratory to clinical practice - 1,000,000 Hutchison
  • Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences in Fayetteville, AR, for research and technology - 300,000 Lincoln, Pryor
  • Chesapeake Information Based Aeronautics Consortium, Maryland, for a partnership of Morgan State University, University of Maryland Eastern Shore and Bowie State University, MD, for continued aviation safety research and development - 4,000,000 Mikulski, Cardin
  • Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, to acquire a new PET/CT scanner as a resource for clinical examinations of veterinary teaching hospital patients and therapy planning for radiation oncology patients - 300,000 Allard, Salazar
  • Connecticut State University, City of New Britian, CT, for an initiative to bring greater awareness of mechanical engineering and aerospace disciplines to disadvantaged high school students - 150,000 Dodd, Lieberman
  • Flight Research Training Center, Roswell, NM, for program to detect, mitigate and recover from loss of control accidents in aircraft - 2,000,000 Domenici
  • Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI, for the West Michigan Science and Technology Institute's Biosciences Research and Commercialization Project - 150,000 Levin, Stabenow
  • Gulf Coast Exploreum, Mobile, AL, to stimulate increased enrollment in engineering, mathematics, and science in Alabama's universities by instructing and inspiring K-12 students in the fundamentals and application of these fields - 250,000 Shelby
  • Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, to investigate the effect of land management decisions on rangeland health and compare similar areas to quantify the role of management decisions - 500,000 Craig, Crapo
  • Imiloa Astronomy Center, Hilo, HI, for operations - 1,500,000 Inouye
  • Institute for NanoBio Technology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, for breakthrough research in nano-bio technologies - 2,000,000 Mikulski
  • Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, for a tool for educators to allow their students to reach their full potential through participation in exciting hands on projects. The projects are dynamic in scope and are structured to be less time restrictive on the classroom schedule and the educator though self-directed curriculum - 250,000 Shelby
  • Manned Space Flight Education Foundation, Houston, TX, to bring extensive learning opportunities to teachers, students and youth organizations throughout our Nation utilizing educational technology with Web casting, two-way videoconferencing and the Internet. The program seeks to inspire the next generation of explorers that would otherwise never have the opportunity to experience space exploration - 500,000 Hutchison
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to produce a common intelligent sensor module through the near-term development of the sensor technologies and integration algorithms necessary for on-orbit assembly and other AR&D missions - 2,000,000 Shelby
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to develop a cost effective nuclear power system to support the long-range objectives of NASA for missions to the moon, to Mars and to deep space - 2,150,000 Shelby
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to help NASA/MSFC accomplish its current and future missions by providing critical information on composite materials as they relate to the NASA space exploration programs - 2,000,000 Shelby
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to provide a secure, retrievable storage solution for Marshall's Data Center that will meet all Presidential Directives - 1,200,000 Shelby
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to provide critical, breakthrough technology to NASA for materials development, testing, and safety improvements to the Space Shuttle and Ares launch systems - 1,500,000 Shelby
  • Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, to support the ongoing technology maturation program for liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion technology - 500,000 Shelby
  • Marshall University, Huntington, WV, to support NASA-related composites training at the Composites Technology and Training Institute in Bridgeport, WV - 2,500,000 Byrd
  • Maryland Department of Business and Economic Development, Baltimore, MD, for continued construction of a broadband link between the Wallops Island Flight Facility and the Patuxent River Naval Air Station - 4,000,000 Mikulski, Cardin
  • McWane Science Center, Birmingham, AL, for a program will focus on increasing interest and aptitude in the science fields in K-12 students through hands-on activities that will serve as an extension of the classrooms. Teacher training will also play a major role - 300,000 Shelby
  • Mid-Atlantic Cooperative, Danville, VA, for installation of broadband on the Eastern Shore of Virginia - 2,000,000 Warner, Webb
  • Mid-Atlantic Institute for Space Technology, Pocomoke City, MD, for UAV testing and certification - 250,000 Mikulski
  • Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, Wallops Island, VA, for infrastructure improvements to launch facilities - 250,000 Mikulski
  • NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, for computer operations and improvements - 1,000,000 Hutchison
  • National Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law, University, MS, to provide legal research and outreach on critical space and aviation law issues - 3,000,000 Cochran
  • New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, for the Southern New Mexico Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy for a space education program to meet the math and science learning needs of under-represented K-12 students - 200,000 Bingaman
  • Pittsburgh Engineering Initiatives, Pittsburgh, PA, to further development of regenerative treatments for astronauts - 300,000 Casey
  • Rochester Institute of Technology , Rochester, NY, for a Integrated Sensing Systems Testbed (ISST) to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced techniques for situational awareness - 200,000 Schumer, Clinton
  • Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO, Enhancement of K-12 teaching and learning of sciences, math, and technology among schools, teachers, and students - 1,000,000 Bond

  • Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL, for the development of laboratory-based test methods and test standards for coupon and component level characterization; development of subcomponent testing capabilities for material, component and system characterization; development and qualification of modeling and simulation techniques for these applications; and development of an integrated modeling and testing approach for evaluation and optimization of new material concepts - 1,500,000 Shelby
  • St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO, for immunology research that will complement NASA research on the immune system in microgravity - 1,000,000 Bond
  • Stennis Space Center, MS, to continue a longstanding technology/industry partnership in assisting in transitioning space technologies into the commercial sector - 4,000,000 Cochran
  • Stennis Space Center, Stennis Space Center, MS, to support infrastructure improvements for Crew Exploration Vehicle testing - 3,000,000 Cochran
  • Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, for ongoing applied polymer technology research and development that links NASA with Louisiana's polymer industry and the State's academic polymer research programs - 500,000 Landrieu, Vitter
  • U.S. Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, AL, for completion of a long overdue update for the museum and exhibits will provide a more stimulating and effective presentation of the history of our nation's space exploration efforts and will serve to stimulate increased interest in science and technology - 500,000 Shelby
  • University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL, to provide research that will provide both fundamental insight into the combustion behavior of this fuel with liquid oxygen which will assist in realizing its full performance potential and will train the next generation of propulsion scientists and engineers who will work for or support NASA in implementing the chosen engine designs - 2,000,000 Shelby
  • University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, to conduct the fundamental and applied research needed to develop effective near-space technologies for station-keeping - 600,000 Shelby
  • University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, to continue the establishment of the Center at NASA Ames Research Center in collaboration with UC Santa Cruz - 500,000 Feinstein
  • University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, for technology that assists trauma victims without immediate access to emergency medical care, including astronauts - 1,300,000 McConnell
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD, for environmental remote sens- ing - 2,000,000 Mikulski
  • University of Maryland, College Park, MD, for the Maryland Institute for Dextrous Robotics for the creation of a new generation robotic technology for space exploration - 3,000,000 Mikulski
  • University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, to help establish a degree program in space and telecommunications law - 2,000,000 Ben Nelson
  • University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, to improve the use of geospatial data by State and local governments - 750,000 Harkin, Grassley
  • University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, for the UVM Center for Advanced Computing - 2,000,000 Leahy
  • Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium at the University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, to help make data received from NASA satellite images accessible to the public for management decisions - 3,000,000 Dorgan, Conrad
  • Utah State University Research Foundation, Logan, UT, To develop a modern infrared calibration capability for current and future remote sensing instruments - 500,000 Bennett
  • Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV, to expand the reach of the HealtheWV program, an electronic medical records system - 3,000,000 Byrd
  • Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, to improve facilities and equipment at the National Center for Advanced Materials Performance (NCAMP), which provides shared-database methodology addressing material, structural, manufacturing, and repair qualification processes for use of affordable polymeric composite materials in commercial and military applications - 350,000 Brownback


EXPLORATION CAPABILITIES

Appropriations, 2007 $6,145,594,000
Supplemental appropriations, 2007 20,000,000
Budget estimate, 2008 6,791,700,000
Committee recommendation 6,792,000,000

The Committee recommendation provides $6,792,000,000 for Exploration Capabilities. The recommendation is $646,406,000 above the fiscal year 2007 enacted level and $300,000 above the President's request.

Bill language is included to provide: $4,007,760,000 for Space Shuttle operations; and $2,238,610,000 for Space Station operations. Bill language also includes the following limitation on funds: $862,200,000 for center management and operations; $263,700,000 for corporate and general administrative costs; and $263,700,000 for institutional investments.

NASA's Exploration Capabilities [EC] account provides funding for the Space Operations Mission Directorate. The Space Operations Mission Directorate includes International Space Station [ISS], Space Shuttle Program, and Space and Flight Support.

The EC appropriation includes both the direct and the indirect costs supporting the Space Operations Mission Directorate, and provides for all of the research; development; operations; salaries and related expenses; design, repair, rehabilitation, and modification of facilities and construction of new facilities; maintenance, and operation of facilities; and other general and administrative activities supporting the EC programs.


[In millions of dollars]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                               Committee recommendation 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Exploration Capabilities Total                                 6,792.00 
Space Shuttle                                                  4,007.76 
Business Management                                               81.43 
External Tank                                                    383.55 
Extravehicular Activity                                             .26 
Flight Crew Operations                                           107.23 
Flight Hardware Transition/Retirement                             73.54 
Flight Operations and Integration                                 63.86 
Flight Software                                                  137.68 
Landing Operations                                                 3.76 
Launch and Landing                                               957.60 
Management and Integration                                        38.13 
Mission Directorate Support [SSP]                                 10.54 
Mission Operations                                               289.65 
Orbiter                                                          625.52 
Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration                    23.83 
Reusable Solid Rocket Motor                                      451.87 
Safety and Mission Assurance                                      37.43 
Severance and Retention                                           14.71 
Solid Rocket Booster [SRB]                                       188.69 
Space Life Sciences                                               15.43 
Space Shuttle Main Engine [SSME]                                 293.82 
Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Integration                      25.20 
Space Shuttle Safety and Sustainability                            4.10 
SSME Test Support                                                 40.67 
SSP Closed Accounts                                                1.23 
SSP Contract Administration                                       31.87 
Systems Engineering and Integration                              106.16 
International Space Station                                    2,238.61 
ISS Cargo Crew Services                                          122.57 
Flight Hardware                                                   61.15 
Node 3                                                              .15 
ISS Operations Program Integtration                              292.66 
Mission Directorate Support (ISS)                                 11.91 
ISS Contract Administration                                        7.23 
ISS Spacecraft Operations                                      1,087.86 
ISS Launch and Mission Operations                                518.39 
Multi-User System Support (MUSS)                                 136.69 
Space and Flight Support (SFS)                                   545.63 
Space Communications                                             371.38 
Space Communication Project                                      187.77 
Space Communications Contract Administration                       1.10 
TDRS Continuation                                                182.51 
Launch Services                                                  110.12 
LSP Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Payload                            2.00 
Launch Services Project                                          107.04 
Launch Services Contract Administration                            1.08 
Rocket Propulsion Testing                                         51.32 
Crew Health and Safety                                            12.81 
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Space Shuttle- The Shuttle remains the cornerstone of our Nation's heavy launch capability and is critical to the future of the ISS and scientific research. The future of the ISS, and other U.S. manned space flight missions for the rest of the decade are contingent upon having a working Shuttle fleet that is safe and reliable throughout the remaining years of the shuttle program.

The Committee recommends $4,007,760,000 for the Shuttle. Funds provided are to be dedicated solely to Shuttle funding needs.

International Space Station- The Committee has provided the full requested amount of $2,238,610,000 for the International Space Station [ISS]. The ISS is a research and technology test bed in low Earth orbit in which United States and International astronauts conduct scientific and technological investigations in a space environment. The ISS supports scientific research for human space exploration, as well as other research that can only be conducted in space but requires the presence of humans in space.


OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL

Appropriations, 2007 $32,224,000
Budget estimate, 2008 34,600,000
Committee recommendation 34,600,000

The Committee recommendation provides the full budget request of $34,600,000 for the Office of Inspector General [IG]. The recommendation is $2,376,000 above the fiscal year 2007 enacted level.

The IG was established by the Inspector General Act of 1978. The Office is responsible for providing agencywide audits and investigative functions to identify and correct management and administrative deficiencies which create conditions for existing or potential instances of fraud, waste, and mismanagement.

ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Budget Justifications- The Committee continues to be disappointed in the lack of detail provided in NASA's fiscal year 2008 congressional budget justification document. Budget justifications are critical to the Committee's ability to make informed decisions concerning the administration's funding requests and must be submitted in a format with the greatest level of detail possible. Therefore, the Committee has included bill language that stipulates the minimum acceptable details for each fiscal year budget submission. NASA shall submit to the Committee, no later than October 15, 2007, a template for its fiscal year 2009 budget justification document that complies with this direction.

For fiscal year 2009 and each year thereafter, the Committee directs NASA to include the out-year budget impacts in all reprogramming requests. Future operating plans, reprogramming requests, and all budget resubmissions also shall include a separate accounting of all program/mission reserves and impacts on estimated carry over funds.

Reprogrammings- In previous years, NASA has chosen to make major programmatic decisions through comprehensive operating plans. While such changes are allowed, it is the view of the Committee that this should not be a regular occurrence. Instead, after an initial operating plan has been submitted, individual reprogramming letters should be utilized for minor adjustments in programs as they arise and only in exceptional circumstances should comprehensive measures be taken. Any reprogramming or operating plan request submitted to the Committee shall contain a detailed explanation of where each adjustment of funds is proposed to be taken from and the exact destination of those funds.

Contract Costs- The Committee is concerned that NASA has not utilized independent cost verification early in the process of estimating costs for its programs and missions, or in assessing the appropriate funding levels of sole-source contracts. In allocating resources for current and future needs, effective cost estimation is crucial. NASA is directed to incorporate independent cost verification as part of the process by which contracts are selected and monitored. Utilization of independent cost verification shall be used as a guide for assessing when costs have exceeded expectations and to help identify projects for termination.

Once again the Committee directs NASA that it shall notify, in writing, the Committee 30 days prior to allocating funds, modifying, or extending existing contracts that are in excess of 15 percent of the original contract value. Within this notification NASA shall also justify the additional expenditure of funds, and NASA shall identify the source of any necessary additional funds. It is absolutely critical that NASA be able to control the costs of its activities. The Committee notes with interest that it has received no such notifications over the past 2 years. Therefore, the Committee directs NASA to provide the Committee a report, no later than 45 days after enactment, providing the original baseline amount and schedule for all current programs with a life cycle cost of $100,000,000 or more, as well as the current baseline amount, confidence level, and schedule for the same programs.

The Committee reiterates the bill-wide direction of annual reviews by GAO. NASA shall provide access to all necessary data, as determined by GAO, in order for the reviews to be completed and provided in a timely manner to the Committee. As these reviews will be recurring, NASA shall provide appropriate office space for GAO staff to conduct their reviews.


ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

Budget Justifications- The Committee continues to be disappointed in the lack of detail provided in NASA's fiscal year 2008 congressional budget justification document. Budget justifications are critical to the Committee's ability to make informed decisions concerning the administration's funding requests and must be submitted in a format with the greatest level of detail possible. Therefore, the Committee has included bill language that stipulates the minimum acceptable details for each fiscal year budget submission. NASA shall submit to the Committee, no later than October 15, 2007, a template for its fiscal year 2009 budget justification document that complies with this direction.

For fiscal year 2009 and each year thereafter, the Committee directs NASA to include the out-year budget impacts in all reprogramming requests. Future operating plans, reprogramming requests, and all budget resubmissions also shall include a separate accounting of all program/mission reserves and impacts on estimated carry over funds.

Reprogrammings- In previous years, NASA has chosen to make major programmatic decisions through comprehensive operating plans. While such changes are allowed, it is the view of the Committee that this should not be a regular occurrence. Instead, after an initial operating plan has been submitted, individual reprogramming letters should be utilized for minor adjustments in programs as they arise and only in exceptional circumstances should comprehensive measures be taken. Any reprogramming or operating plan request submitted to the Committee shall contain a detailed explanation of where each adjustment of funds is proposed to be taken from and the exact destination of those funds.

Contract Costs- The Committee is concerned that NASA has not utilized independent cost verification early in the process of estimating costs for its programs and missions, or in assessing the appropriate funding levels of sole-source contracts. In allocating resources for current and future needs, effective cost estimation is crucial. NASA is directed to incorporate independent cost verification as part of the process by which contracts are selected and monitored. Utilization of independent cost verification shall be used as a guide for assessing when costs have exceeded expectations and to help identify projects for termination.

Once again the Committee directs NASA that it shall notify, in writing, the Committee 30 days prior to allocating funds, modifying, or extending existing contracts that are in excess of 15 percent of the original contract value. Within this notification NASA shall also justify the additional expenditure of funds, and NASA shall identify the source of any necessary additional funds. It is absolutely critical that NASA be able to control the costs of its activities. The Committee notes with interest that it has received no such notifications over the past 2 years. Therefore, the Committee directs NASA to provide the Committee a report, no later than 45 days after enactment, providing the original baseline amount and schedule for all current programs with a life cycle cost of $100,000,000 or more, as well as the current baseline amount, confidence level, and schedule for the same programs.

The Committee reiterates the bill-wide direction of annual reviews by GAO. NASA shall provide access to all necessary data, as determined by GAO, in order for the reviews to be completed and provided in a timely manner to the Committee. As these reviews will be recurring, NASA shall provide appropriate office space for GAO staff to conduct their reviews.

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

Appropriations, 2007 $5,917,165,000
Budget estimate, 2008 6,429,000,000
Committee recommendation 6,553,400,000

The Committee recommendation provides $6,553,400,000. The recommendation is $636,235,000 above the fiscal year 2007 enacted level and $124,400,000 above the budget request.

The National Science Foundation [NSF] was established as an independent agency by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (Public Law 81-507) and is authorized to support research and education programs that promote the progress of science and engineering in the United States. The Foundation supports research and education in all major scientific and engineering disciplines through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other forms of assistance in all parts of the United States. The Foundation also supports unique, large-scale research facilities and international facilities.

NSF is the principal Federal agency charged with promoting science and engineering education from pre-kindergarten through career development. This helps ensure that the United States has world-class scientists, mathematicians and engineers, and well-prepared citizens for today and the future. In today's global economy, continued progress in science and engineering and the transfer of the knowledge developed is vital if the United States is to maintain its competitiveness. NSF is at the leading edge of the research and discoveries that will create the jobs and technologies of the future.

The Committee is fully supportive of the American Competitiveness Initiative [ACI]. The funding levels anticipated for NSF will certainly provide the vital funding that will broaden the Nation's understanding in fundamental science disciplines. However, the Committee feels that the ACI neglects the education work NSF does in support of research across the country. Broadening participation to underrepresented groups, such as women and minorities, in the sciences will only further the goals of the ACI as proposed in the budget request.

The Committee reiterates its long-standing requirement that NSF request reprogrammings when initiating new programs or activities or reorganizing components. The Committee expects to be notified of reprogramming actions which involve less than the above-mentioned amount if such actions would have the effect of changing the agency's funding requirements in future years, or if programs or projects specifically cited in the Committee's reports are affected.

Please follow SpaceRef on Twitter and Like us on Facebook.