>>>Today 31 years ago (1981), STS-1 Columbia (OV-102), the first operational Space Shuttle, returned from orbit piloted by John Young and Robert Crippen, successfully completing its first test flight.<<<
All ISS systems continue to function nominally, except those noted previously or below. Saturday - Crew off duty.
After breakfast, FE-1 Shkaplerov performed the routine inspection of the SM (Service Module) PSS Caution & Warning panel as part of regular Daily Morning Inspection.
Upon wakeup, CDR Dan Burbank, FE-5 Andre Kuipers & FE-6 Don Pettit each completed another post-sleep session of the Reaction Self-Test (Psychomotor Vigilance Self-Test on the ISS) protocol, the 41st for Dan, the 35th for Andre & Don. [RST is done twice daily (after wakeup & before bedtime) for 3 days prior to the sleep shift, the day(s) of the sleep shift and 5 days following a sleep shift. The experiment consists of a 5-minute reaction time task that allows crewmembers to monitor the daily effects of fatigue on performance while on ISS. The experiment provides objective feedback on neurobehavioral changes in attention, psychomotor speed, state stability, and impulsivity while on ISS missions, particularly as they relate to changes in circadian rhythms, sleep restrictions, and extended work shifts.]
As generally on Saturdays, the six crewmembers joined in conducting the regular weekly three-hour task of thorough cleaning of their home, including COL (Columbus Orbital Laboratory) and Kibo JPM (JEM Pressurized Module). ["Uborka", usually done on Saturdays, includes removal of food waste products, cleaning of compartments with vacuum cleaner, damp cleaning of the SM dining table, other frequently touched surfaces and surfaces where trash is collected, as well as the sleep stations with a standard cleaning solution; also, fan screens and grilles are cleaned to avoid temperature rises. Special cleaning is also done every 90 days on the HEPA (high-efficiency particulate air) bacteria filters in the Lab.]
As part of Uborka house cleaning, Anton, Anatoly & Oleg completed regular weekly maintenance inspection & cleaning of fan screens in the FGB (TsV2) plus Group E fan grilles in the SM (VPkhO, FS5, FS6, VP) and the BMP Harmful Contaminants Removal System grille in the SM.
Anton also performed the routine daily servicing of the SOZh system (Environment Control & Life Support System, ECLSS) in the SM. [Regular daily SOZh maintenance consists, among else, of checking the ASU toilet facilities, replacement of the KTO & KBO solid waste containers, replacement of EDV-SV waste water and EDV-U urine containers and filling EDV-SV, KOV (for Elektron), EDV-ZV & EDV on RP flow regulator.]
The CDR conducted the regular (~weekly) inspection & maintenance, as required, of the CGBA-4 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 4) and CGBA-5 payloads in their ERs (EXPRESS Racks) at Lab O2 & O1, focusing on cleaning the muffler air intakes.
Anton Shkaplerov & Anatoly Ivanishin completed their 2nd preliminary orthostatic hemodynamic endurance test runs with the Russian Chibis suit in preparation for their return to gravity on 4/27 with Soyuz 28S (along with Dan Burbank), conducting the ODNT exercise protocol in the below-the-waist reduced-pressure device (ODNT, US: LBNP/Lower Body Negative Pressure) on the TVIS treadmill. Oleg Kononenko acted as CMO (Crew Medical Officer for both crewmembers as Subjects. FE-1 & FE-2 were supported in their one-hour sessions by ground specialist tagup and telemetry downlinks via VHF at 6:53am & 8:30am EDT, resp. [The Chibis provides gravity-simulating stress to the body's cardiovascular/circulatory system for evaluation of the crewmember's orthostatic tolerance (e.g., the Gauer-Henry reflex) after his long-term stay in zero-G. The preparatory training consists of first imbibing 150-200 milliliters of water or juice, followed by a sequence of progressive regimes of reduced ("negative") pressure, set at -20, -25, -30, and -35 mmHg for five min. each while shifting from foot to foot at 10-12 steps per minute, wearing a sphygmomanometer to measure blood pressure and the REG ShKO Rheoencephalogram Biomed Cap, supported by the Gamma-1M biomed data control system. The body's circulatory system interprets the pressure differential between upper and lower body as a gravity-like force pulling the blood (and other liquids) down. Chibis data and biomed cardiovascular readings are recorded. The Chibis suit (not to be confused with the Russian "Pinguin" suit for spring-loaded body compression, or the "Kentavr" anti-g suit worn during reentry) is similar to the U.S. LBNP facility (not a suit) used for the first time on Skylab in 1973/74, although it appears to accomplish its purpose more quickly.]
Pettit, Kuipers & Burbank filled out their weekly FFQs (Food Frequency Questionnaires) on the MEC (Medical Equipment Computer), Don's & Andre's 13th, Dan's 19th. [On the FFQs, USOS astronauts keep a personalized log of their nutritional intake over time on special MEC software. Recorded are the amounts consumed during the past week of such food items as beverages, cereals, grains, eggs, breads, snacks, sweets, fruit, beans, soup, vegetables, dairy, fish, meat, chicken, sauces & spreads, and vitamins. The FFQ is performed once a week to estimate nutrient intake from the previous week and to give recommendations to ground specialists that help maintain optimal crew health. Weekly estimation has been verified to be reliable enough that nutrients do not need to be tracked daily.]
Before Presleep, the CDR will turn on the MPC (Multi-Protocol Converter) and start the Ku-band data flow of video recorded during the day to the ground, with POIC (Payload Operations & Integration Center) routing the onboard HRDL (High-Rate Data Link). After about an hour, Dan turns MPC routing off again. [This is a routine operation which regularly transmits HD onboard video (live or tape playback) to the ground on a daily basis before sleeptime.]
At ~9:00am EDT, the six crewmembers held the regular WPC (Weekly Planning Conference) with the ground, discussing next week's "Look-Ahead Plan" (prepared jointly by MCC-H and TsUP-Moscow timeline planners), via S-band/audio, reviewing upcoming activities and any concerns about future on-orbit events.
At ~11:30am, Oleg, Anatoly & Anton supported a Russian PAO TV downlink, transmitting greetings and congratulations to the participants of the "Star Race" space-related science, technology & art competition finals, opening on 4/23 at the Y. A. Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in Star City.
The crew worked out with their regular 2-hr physical exercise protocol on the CEVIS cycle ergometer with vibration isolation (FE-5), TVIS treadmill with vibration isolation & stabilization (FE-1, FE-2, FE-4), ARED advanced resistive exerciser (CDR, FE-1, FE-2, FE-5, FE-6), T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill (CDR, FE-6) and VELO bike ergometer with load trainer (FE-4). [FE-6 is on the special experimental SPRINT protocol which diverts from the regular 2.5 hrs per day exercise regime and introduces special daily sessions, followed by a USND (Ultrasound) leg muscle self scan in COL. No exercise is being timelined for Fridays. Today's exercise called for ARED+TK (Treadmill Kinematics), with CEVIS, ARED+T2, T2, ARED+T2, CEVIS & TK following in the next 6 days. If any day is not completed, Don picks up where he left off, i.e., he would be finishing out the week with his last day of exercise on his off day.]
FE-6 Pettit performed a session of the Treadmill Kinematics program on the T2/COLBERT advanced treadmill, setting up the HD camcorder in Node-1, placing tape markers on his body, recording a calibration card in the FOV (Field of View) and then conducting the workout run within a specified speed range. Dan Burbank then downlinked the video via MPC. [Purpose of the Kinematics T2 experiment is to collect quantitative data by motion capture from which to assess current exercise prescriptions for participating ISS crewmembers. Detailed biomechanical analyses of locomotion will be used to determine if biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of external loads and exercise speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Such biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in gait motion and allow for model-based determination of joint & muscle forces during exercise. The data will be used to characterize differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in the two gravitational conditions. By understanding these mechanisms, appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies.]
After his T2 session, CDR Burbank closed down the T2 software on its laptop for data transfer, then turned off the T2 display.
Tasks listed for Shkaplerov, Kononenko & Ivanishin on the Russian discretionary "time permitting" job for today were -
. A ~30-min. run of the GFI-8 "Uragan" (hurricane) earth-imaging program with the NIKON D3X digital camera with Sigma AF 300-800mm telelens, focusing on the Volcanoes Tambora, Ranak, Lock-Empung, Gamalama, Karangetan, Ibu Dukono, Marapi, Hudson & Popocatepetl, and the Patagonian glaciers Upsala, Viedma and Chico;
. A 10-min. photography session for the DZZ-13 "Seiner" ocean observation program, obtaining HDV (Z1) camcorder footage of color bloom patterns in the waters of the South-Eastern Pacific, then copying the images to the RSK-1 laptop,
. Recording high-resolution video with the SONY HVR-Z7E to be used in a joint project of Roskosmos TV Studio with Karusel (Carousel) TV Channel for children ages 8 to 12 years, the "It's Time to go to space!" program, which has a segment where Russian cosmonauts are discussing their work &, answer viewers' questions; the footage was then to be downlinked to TsUP-Moscow,
. A ~30-min. session for Russia's EKON Environmental Safety Agency, making observations and taking KPT-3 aerial photography of environmental conditions on Earth using the NIKON D3X camera with the RSK-1 laptop, and
. More preparation & downlinking of reportages (written text, photos, videos) for the Roskosmos website to promote Russia's manned space program (max. file size 500 Mb).
Weekly Science Update (Expedition Thirty/Thirty-One -- Week 28).
2D NANO Template (JAXA): The experiment is continuing in Dewar 4 of MELFI-1. The samples are proceeding by arranging peptides slowly on base plates. The samples will be returned on 28S.
3D SPACE: Complete.
ALTCRISS (Alteino Long Term monitoring of Cosmic Rays on the ISS): Complete.
ALTEA SHIELD (NASA/ASI): No report.
Amine Swingbed (NASA): No report.
AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer): AMS Payload and Laptop operations are nominal. On 4/10 the AMS POCC at CERN received data for the 15 Billionth cosmic ray event.
APEX (Advanced Plant Experiments on Orbit) -Cambium: No report.
APEX-TAGES (Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System): No report.
Asian Seed 2010 (JAXA): Returned on ULF6.
BASS (Burning and Suppression of Solids, NASA): We installed the previously-burned 2-cm diameter PMMA sphere. The sample was ignited and extinguished three separate times, yielding 3 tests points. All ignitions occurred at an air flow speed of 10 cm/s. Don did a nice job establishing the smallest flame possible, at which time the flow speed was decreased to less than 5 cm/s. The flame modelers are most interested in the blue flame growth right after ignition. We attempted to extinguish each test after about 2 minutes by applying nitrogen. However, the nitrogen only destabilized the flame without extinguishing it. In order to extinguish the flame, the air flow was shut off and the flame rapidly went out. Sample flame images are shown in fig. 1 (see BASS tab, linked below). Digital still images from last week were received and are being analyzed. Don was able to install another camera to obtain the bonus edge views which are very useful. The effect of flow speed is dramatic. In future tests, we will attempt to get a flame at the smallest possible flow speed, and then determine how low the flow can get before the flame will go out. This will verify the low-speed extinction limit as predicted by theory. Finally, we estimated the mass loss rate from the images of the burned spheres. The missing fuel amounts to 0.335 g in the approximate 100-second burn for an average burning rate of 3.35 mg/s. The overall oxygen in the MSG (0.255 m3) should have dropped from 21% to 20.8%. The total heat release was around 8.4 kJ, average heat release rate was 80W. (All assuming complete combustion.)
BCAT-6 (Binary Colloidal Alloy Test 6): No report. [Colloids are particles as small as a few tens of nanometers (a thousandth of a thousandth of a millimeter) that are suspended in a medium, usually a liquid or a gas. The name "colloid" comes from the Greek word for "glue", and expresses very important properties of colloids: when small and light enough, particles can be influenced in their behavior by forces of electromagnetic origin, and make them stick together, or repel each other depending on the configuration. Colloids are widely studied in science because the forces between particles can be controlled and tuned and because particles, while being small enough to be influenced by such forces, are big and slow enough to be seen with a relatively simple and inexpensive laboratory instrument like a microscope. This is why colloids are often studied as model for molecular systems (like standard gases or liquids) where molecules, the individual constituents, are much smaller than colloids and cannot be seen with light. As mentioned, forces between colloids can be tuned giving rise to a rich variety of phenomena. One of them is aggregation, which is when particles stick together and tend to form structures. Among the many ways to induce particle aggregation, one allows to do so by controlling the temperature of the solution in which the particles are immersed, thanks to very weak forces called "critical Casimir forces" that have been predicted more than 30 years ago but just partially verified in experiments. The objective of SODI COLLOID is to measure such forces and produce a controlled aggregation of tiny plastic particles. This would allow to shed light on critical Casimir forces and to make a step towards the fabrication of new nanostructured materials with remarkable optical properties for industrial applications.]
BIOLAB (ESA): No report.
BIORHYTHMS (JAXA, Biological Rhythms): No report.
BISE (CSA, Bodies in the Space Environment): No report.
BISPHOSPHONATES: No report.
BXF-Facility (Boiling eXperiment Facility, NASA): No report.
BXF-MABE (Microheater Array Boiling Experiment, NASA): No report.
BXF-NPBX (Pool Boiling Experiment, NASA): No report.
CARD (Long Term Microgravity Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease, ESA): "Andre, since the CARD experiment was re-planned for you for the next coming week, please find some more background information on the CARD experiment below." [The CARD experiment studies how the cardiovascular system adapts to prolonged weightlessness, and in particular the underlying mechanisms of blood circulation in the peripheral parts of the human body (arm and legs) while a crewmember is in space. During short duration space flight missions, the blood volume pumped by the heart (cardiac output) was increased by 22%, while the vascular resistance the heart has to overcome to pump blood through the vessels was decreased by 14%. CARD investigates if these adaptations observed during short-duration missions, remain the same after three months in space. The cardiac output is measured five times over a 24-hour period using the Pulmonary Function System (PFS). Simultaneously blood pressure is monitored hourly by an automatic portable device. The measurements are supported by a 24-hour urine collection and blood sampling towards the end of the measurement period to asses hormonal changes.]
CB (JAXA Clean Bench): No report.
CBEF-2 (JAXA Cell Biology Experiment Facility)/SPACE SEED: No report.
CCISS (Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Control on Return from ISS): No report.
CERISE (JAXA): No report.
CCF (Capillary Channel Flow, NASA): No report.
CFE-2 (Capillary Flow Experiment 2, NASA): No report.
CFS-A (Colored Fungi in Space-A, ESA): No report.
CSI-5/CGBA-5 (CGBA Science Insert #5/Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 5): No report.
CGBA-2 (Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus 2): Complete.
CIR (Combustion Integrated Rack), MDCA/Flex: No report.
Commercial (Inc 23&24, JAXA): No report.
Commercial (Inc 25 & 26, JAXA): No report.
CSAC (Chip-Scale Atomic Clock, SPHERES): No report.
CSLM-2 (Coarsening in Solid-Liquid Mixtures 2): No report.
CsPins (JAXA): On 4/6, Don successfully completed incubation and fixation of the plant samples using KFT. We appreciate how well you treated the stack KFT. Four of the samples, now in MELFI-1, will be returned on SpX-1. The principle investigator is looking forward to researching and analyzing them.
CubeLab: No report.
CW/CR (Cell Wall/Resist Wall) in EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System): Complete.
DECLIC-ALI (Device for the Study of Critical Liquids & Crystallization-ALICE-like, CNES/NASA): No report.
DomeGene (JAXA): Complete.
DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside ISS, ESA): No report.
EarthKAM (Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students): No report.
EDR (European Drawer Rack, ESA): No report.
EKE (Endurance Capacity by Gas Exchange and Heart Rate Kinetics During Physical Training, ESA): No report.
ELITE-S2 (Elaboratore Immagini Televisive - Space 2): Planned.
EMCS (European Modular Cultivation System): "Thanks, Dan, for your help in changing out the EMCS Thermal Control System cold spot sponge on 3/29."
ENose (Electronic Nose): No report.
EPM (European Physiology Module): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Eye in the Sky; Sleep 2): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Sesame Street): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Kids in Micro-G): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Earth/Moon/Mars Demo): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (Space Sports): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, NASA) (ISS Orbit): No report.
EPO (Educational Payload Operations, ESA): No report.
EPO CONVECTIONS (ESA): "No report.
EPO MISSION X (ESA): "Andre, you did a great job during the recording for Mission-X on 4/9. Thanks for downlinking 40 minutes of video footage!"
EPO LES-2 (ESA): No report.
EPO GREENHOUSE (ESA): No report.
EPO 3-min Video (JAXA): No report.
EPO J-Astro Report (JAXA): No report.
EPO Dewey's Forest (JAXA): Closed out on 3/15.
EPO Space Clothes (JAXA): Complete.
EPO Hiten (Dance, JAXA): No report.
EPO Lego Bricks (NASA, JAXA): No report.
EPO Moon Score (JAXA): No report.
EPO Kibo Kids Tour (JAXA): Complete.
EPO Paper Craft (Origami, JAXA): No report.
EPO Poem (JAXA): No report.
EPO-5 SpaceBottle (Message in a Bottle, JAXA): No report.
EPO-6 Spiral Top 2 (JAXA): No report.
EPO-7 Doctor Demo (JAXA): No report.
EPO-7 Green Tea Preparation (JAXA): No report.
EPO-7 Ink Ball (JAXA): No report.
EPO-7 Video (JAXA):
EPO-7 Try Zero-G (JAXA): No report.
EPO-8 Space Sakura (JAXA): No report.
EPO-8 Space Musical Instruments (JAXA): No report.
ERB-2 (Erasmus Recording Binocular, ESA): [ERB-2 aims are to develop narrated video material for various PR & educational products & events, including a 3D interior station view.] No report.
ETD (Eye Tracking Device): Completed.
FACET-2 (JAXA): No report.
FERULATE (JAXA): No report.
FIR/LMM/CVB (Fluids Integrated Rack / Light Microscopy Module / Constrained Vapor Bubble): No report.
Fish Scales (JAXA): Completed on FD7/ULF-4 and returned on STS-132.
FOAM STABILITY EPO (ESA): No report.
FOCUS: No report.
FSL (Fluid Science Laboratory, ESA): No report.
FWED (Flywheel Exercise Device, ESA): No report.
GENARA-A (Gravity Regulated Genes in Arabidopsis A/ESA): No report.
GEOFLOW-2 (ESA): On 4/11 one no-rotation run was started with a delay of about 6hrs due to a MMU issue that prevented any file uplink. Four out of six scientific setpoints were completed without any issue. Unfortunately, due to a FSL TEC-2 board trip the run was aborted and the last two setpoints were skipped. [Background: Everybody is familiar with liquids. In an average day we get to use, handle or drink water or other liquids. And everybody knows how fluids (that is liquids and gases) behave: when subjected to a net force, may be pressure, a temperature difference or gravity, they can move freely. Scientists have been studying how fluids move for centuries, and managed to write mathematical formulas that can describe and predict such movements. Unfortunately, these equations are extremely complex and only approximate solutions are known. As a result, our quantitative understanding of fluid movement is just partial. This is especially true for natural phenomena where the forces can be enormous and unpredictable, like in oceans or in the atmosphere. Or the interior of the earth, where rocks are exposed to pressures and temperatures so incredibly high that they slowly move and adapt their shape. That is, over hundreds of years rocks flow just like a very viscous liquid. Scientists try to study such flows but cannot observe them directly due to the fact that they take place deep beneath the surface of our planet. The only way is to have computers simulating those movements starting from the equations, but how to check whether computers are correct? This is what Geoflow II is trying to answer on board the International Space Station. Geoflow II is a miniature planet that has some of its essential ingredients: a fluid can freely move inside a spherical container that rotates, has temperature differences and has a simulated gravity directed towards the centre just like in a real planet. By taking pictures of the fluid movements, scientists are able to understand the essential characteristics of the flows and determine whether computer simulations are correct or whether they need to be refined and improved towards a better understanding of the elusive movements that take place inside our planet.]
HAIR (JAXA): No report.
HDTV System (JAXA): No report.
Hicari (JAXA): Ground Activities: We are still focusing on the first sample of the Hicari Experiment which will be returned on 28S. Thank you for checking that there was no indication of triggered events in the Oscilloscope, and that the probe was set into the test line of controller GHF-CE. We started a dry run for Hicari run#1 on 4/13.
Holter ECG (JAXA): No report.
HQPC (JAXA): Was delivered by 34P.
HREP (HICO/Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean & RAIDS/Remote Atmospheric & Ionospheric Detection System/JAXA): HICO has taken 5424 images to-date. The most recent HICO images include the coast of Puerto Rico, part of the Australian coastline, part of South America, and part of the coast of New Zealand. RAIDS is collecting secondary Science data including nighttime atmospheric disk photometry, spectra and temperatures. Extreme Ultra Violet airglow spectroscopy and optical contamination studies will also be performed.
HRF-1 (Human Research Facility 1, NASA): No report.
HydroTropi (Hydrotropism & Auxin-Inducible Gene Expression in Roots Grown under Microgravity Conditions/JAXA): No report.
ICE CRYSTAL (JAXA): Complete.
ICV (Integrated Cardiovascular): No report.
IMMUNO (Neuroendocrine & Immune Responses in Humans During & After Long Term Stay at ISS): No report.
INTEGRATED IMMUNE: No report.
InSPACE-2 (Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates from Colloidal Emulsions 2): No report.
IRIS (Image Reversal in Space, CSA): No report.
ISS Amateur/Ham Radio: No report.
ISSAC (ISS Agricultural Camera, NASA): No report.
IV Gen (Intravenous Fluids Generation): No report.
JOURNALS (Behavioral Issues Associated with Isolation and Confinement, NASA): No report. [Studies conducted on Earth have shown that analyzing the content of journals and diaries is an effective method for identifying the issues that are most important to a person. The method is based on the reasonable assumption that the frequency that an issue or category of issues is mentioned in a journal reflects the importance of that issue or category to the writer. The tone of each entry (positive, negative, or neutral) and phase of the expedition also are variables of interest. Study results will lead to recommendations for the design of equipment, facilities, procedures, and training to help sustain behavioral adjustment and performance during long-duration space expeditions to the ISS, asteroids, the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Results from this study could help to improve the behavioral performance of people living and working under a variety of conditions here on Earth.]
KID/KUBIK6: No report.
KUBIK 3 (ESA): No report.
LMM/PACE-2 (Light Microscopy Module / Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment): No report.
LOCAD-PTS (Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development-Portable Test System): No report.
Marangoni Exp. (JAXA): No report.
Marangoni DSD - Dynamic Surf (JAXA): Payload name was change from Marangoni DSD to Dynamic Surf.
Marangoni UVP (JAXA): No report.
MARES (Muscle Atrophy Research & Exercise System, ESA/NASA): No report.
Matryoshka-2 (RSA): No report.
MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, JAXA): Continuing telemetry monitoring.
MDCA/Flex-2: "Dan: Excellent job replacing the FCF DCM on 4/10. We appreciate the extra steps you took to properly seat the electrical connection at the FCF DCM. The replacement was successful! The camera package successfully powered on and acquired images. FLEX-2 test points have resumed, and are proceeding nominally!"
MEIS (Marangoni Experiment for ISS) in JAXA FPEF (Fluid Physics Experiment Facility): No report.
Microbe-2 (JAXA): Sample returned by ULF6.
Micro-G Clay (JAXA EPO): Complete.
MISSE-8 (Materials ISS Experiment 8): MISSE-8 ground controllers are continuing to perform special commanding to prevent CIB resets during this high positive beta angle period. The ReflectArray and SEUXSE experiments remain disabled as well to prevent over-heating and will be re-activated by the Principal Investigator (PI) once temperatures return to within limits. The PI is currently considering re-enabling ReflectArray and SEUXSE soon. PASCAL is performing nominal commanding that produced IV curves of the solar cells. IV curves are plots of the current versus voltage for solar cells and tell a lot about how these are performing. The SpaceCube experiment is running code for new radiation hardening by software.
MMA (JAXA/Microgravity Measurement Apparatus): No report.
MPAC/SEED (JAXA): No report.
MSG-SAME (Microgravity Science Glovebox-Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment): No report.
MSPR (Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack, JAXA): No report.
MSL (Materials Science Laboratory, ESA): No report.
MTR-2 (Russian radiation measurements): Passive dosimeters measurements in DC-1 "Pirs".
MYCO 3 (JAXA): On 9/22, Mike and Satoshi completed sample collection.
MyoLab (JAXA): Completed on 4/20.
NANOSKELETON (Production of High Performance Nanomaterials in Microgravity, JAXA): No report.
NEURORAD (JAXA): No report.
NEUROSPAT (ESA/Study of Spatial Cognition, Novelty Processing and Sensorimotor Integration): No report. [During microgravity stay, the human body goes through multitude of physiological changes in order to accommodate to the new environment. As the brain is a master organ where major crucial processes take place, it is fundamental to understand how it manages adaptation for living in Space. One of the main purposes of Neurospat (NES) experiment is to focus on how microgravity environment influences cerebral activity of astronauts aboard ISS. For this, the global electrical activity of the brain of the astronaut is measured thanks to electroencephalogram (EEG) technique, while he or she is executing specific tasks through a computer as if it was a kind of videogame. In practice, the astronaut is wearing a specially equipped cap with passive, gel filled electrodes that are in contact with his/her scalp while he or she is performing the specific tasks that we have designed. These are visual-orientation perception and visuo-motor tracking tasks that may be encountered on a daily basis. The tasks allow the study of 5 cognitive processes: Perception, Attention, Memorization, Decision and Action. Besides there are also task-irrelevant images that are showed to the astronaut in order to assess how well he or she processes novel visual stimuli. The electrodes all over the scalp are linked to sensitive amplifiers that allow us to measure small variations of electrical potential between different regions of the scalp. These signals are in turn used to estimate activity in the cerebral cortex related to the task being performed. Also, they serve to identify the mental processes associated with these tasks and to localize in the brain the sources of the underlying neural activity. After analysis of the data we can better understand whether the novel environment of microgravity accompanied by a multitude of stressors may place an increased load on the cognitive capacity of the human brain and whether the sensory signals and motor responses of astronauts are processed and interpreted differently because a new reference frame.]
NightPod (ESA): NightPod images have been presented in a news blog on the ESA PromISSe website: http://blogs.esa.int/promisse/2012/04/05/nightpod/
NOA-1/-2 (Nitric Oxide Analyzer, ESA): Complete.
NUTRITION w/REPOSITORY/ProK: No report.
ODK (Onboard Diagnostic Kit, JAXA): No report.
PACE-2 (Preliminary Advanced Colloids Experiment 2, NASA): (please see under FIR and LMM/PACE-2.
PADIAC (Pathway Different Activators, ESA): No report.
PADLES (JAXA, Area PADLES 6/7; Passive Area Dosimeter for Lifescience Experiment in Space): The experiment is continuing on walls of the JPM and the JLP. The dosimeters will be returned on 28S.
PASSAGES (JAXA): No report. [PASSAGES is an experiment about the strategies involved in the perception of the world around us. Seeing correctly the world is necessary to success our gestures, our actions, such as catching a ball, stepping an obstacle on the ground or passing through an opened door. In this experiment, we want to know if the strategies involved on Earth continue to be used when the astronaut is in a weightlessness environment for a long period. To investigate this question, the participant sees 3D scenes on the screen of a laptop such as a video game. The scene is a room with an opening which can vary in width. The task of the participant is to decide if yes or no he or she could pass through the aperture without rotating or scrunching the shoulders. The science team uses typical methods from psychophysics and manipulates several factors to highlight the strategies used by the participant. Then, the science team will compare the performances obtained on ground with those obtained onboard.]
PCDF-PU (Protein Crystallization Diagnostic Facility - Process Unit): No report.
PCG (JAXA, Protein Crystal Growth): Since 1/28, we are monitoring temperature until the day of the return of 28S.
PCRF (Protein Crystallization Research Facility) Reconfiguration (JAXA): See PCG.
PLSG (Plant Signaling, NASA/ESA): Both planned experiment runs were completed in August of 2011. Experiment containers are stored at ambient, awaiting planned return on SpaceX-D. Frozen science samples are in MELFI awaiting return on SpaceX-1.
PMDIS (Perceptual Motor Deficits in Space): Complete.
POLCA/GRAVIGEN (ESA): Complete.
Portable PFS: Used for Andre's VO2max / THERMOLAB / EKE session on 4/6.
Pro K: "Don, you have completed 4 of the 5 planned Pro K sessions. The remaining session may be scheduled within two weeks of return. Your logs have been downlinked and the Pro K team appreciates the efforts and attention to detail you've shown thus far. Also, we would like to thank you for the heads up on wanting to start the blood draw session as soon as possible. Providing that information allowed the ground team to staff earlier to support your request."
RadGene & LOH (JAXA): Complete.
RadSilk (JAXA): No report.
Reaction Self Test (RST/Psychomotor Vigilance Self Test on the ISS): "Dan, Don, and Andre! Thanks for your efforts in Reaction Self Test, they are greatly appreciated!"
ROALD-2 (Role of Apoptosis in Lymphocyte Depression 2, ESA): No report. [Background: The ROALD-2 experiment studies how the function of T-cells from the immune system are affected by microgravity and spaceflight. T-cells play an important role in controlling the immune systems response to infection. It has previously been shown that the immune response of astronauts can be reduced following spaceflight and it has also been shown that the activation of T-cells in culture is reduced in microgravity. A series of experiments on T-cells and other immune system cells have been previously performed by different scientific teams on Space Shuttle and the ISS over the last 30 years. The data from these individual experiments provides information which together can be used to understand the mechanisms by which gravity or the absence of gravity can affect T-cell function.]
Robonaut (NASA): No report.
RYUTAI Rack (JAXA): On 4/9, Andre completed the fastener replacement in Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF). Thank You.
SAIBO Rack (JAXA): No report.
SAMS/MAMS (Space & Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems): No report.
SCOF (Solution Crystallization Observation Facility, JAXA): No report.
SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload, JAXA): Continuing telemetry monitoring.
SHD (Space Headaches, ESA): "Thanks, Andre, for the completion of the 15th weekly questionnaire! " [Background: The neurologists from Leiden University want to study the question whether the astronauts, while in space, suffer from the headaches. With the help of simple questionnaires the astronauts will register the headache episodes and the eventual accompanying symptoms. The results will hopefully help to characterize the frequency and characteristics of space headache and to develop countermeasure to prevent/minimize headache occurrence during the space flight.]
SHERE II (Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment II): No report.
SLAMMD (Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device): No report.
SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy & Light Exposure during Spaceflight): No report.
SLICE (Structure & Liftoff In Combustion Experiment): No report. [See under BASS.]
SMILES (JAXA): Continuing telemetry monitoring.
SODI/IVIDIL (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Influence of Vibration on Diffusion in Liquids, ESA): No report.
SODI/COLLOID (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Colloid): No report.
SODI-DSC (Selectable Optical Diagnostics Instrument/Diffusion & Soret Coefficient, ESA): No report. [Background: Fluids and gases are never at rest. This statement is in apparent contradiction with our experience: when we pour water in a glass and wait until all flows have disappeared and the temperature of the liquid is in equilibrium with that of the room, we see that water appears to be completely at rest. However, if we were able to see the individual molecules of water with a very powerful microscope, we would discover that they are incessantly moving and collide with each other following frantic, random paths even if the liquid appears to be quiescent at naked eye. Scientists are interested in observing and measuring such movements because they reveal important, practical information: how fast does heat propagates in a fluid? How fast do liquid mixtures mix? Such phenomena occur in absence of a macroscopic flow, that is when the fluid appears to be at rest, and are called heat and mass diffusion respectively. While the theoretical prediction of heat and mass diffusion is still quite challenging, its measurement is a standard laboratory practice, but may become extremely difficult or impossible when dealing with mixtures of many liquids, due to the fact that such measurement needs to be carried out when the fluid is quiescent, a condition sometimes impossible to achieve on ground. This is precisely the objective of the SODI DSC experiment carried out on board the International Space Station: the measurement of diffusion in mixtures of liquids. By using very sensitive optical techniques, it will be possible to measure mass diffusion, compare with current theories, and improve our present understanding of how molecules move in liquid mixtures. The results will be used by the large team of scientists involved in the project to try to understand which of the many existing theories for mass diffusion is correctly predicting the experimental behavior.]
SOLAR (Solar Monitoring Observatory, ESA): Out of Sun Visibility Window since 3/29. Next Sun Visibility Window #52 is expected to start on 4/19. On 4/10 SOLSPEC calibrations were performed successfully after a communication error (AIB failure) had been recovered.
SOLO (Sodium Loading in Microgravity): No report.
Space-DRUMS (Space Dynamically Responding Ultrasonic Matrix System): No report.
Space Food (JAXA): No report.
SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellite): No report.
SPHINX (SPaceflight of Huvec: an Integrated eXperiment, ESA): No report.
SPICE (Smoke Point In Co-flow Experiment): No report.
SPINAL (Spinal Elongation): No report.
SPRINT: "Don, great job with your FD90 Sprint ultrasound! The PI has the data and is analyzing. Thank you for keeping the marks on your leg and re-measuring to ensure accurate data."
SS-HDTV (Super Sensitivity High Definition Camera, JAXA): "Andre and Don, thank you for taking Super Sensitive Video targeting the Aurora. We are waiting to watch the video. We hope to get a nice view when you fly over the Japanese Islands at night next week."
STP-H3 (Space Test Program - Houston 3): The MHTEX Capillary Pumped Loop evaporators are currently repriming in preparation for further tests and steady state operations. VADER continues to characterize the performance of the Aerogel blanket attached to the backside of the experiment. Canary is analyzing data taken during various events utilizing ATV thrusters and is also performing instrument validity checks this week. DISC has taken more imagery this week and is processing images that were taken in previous weeks.
SWAB (Characterization of Microorganisms & Allergens in Spacecraft): No report.
TASTE IN SPACE (ESA): No report.
THERMOLAB (ESA): "Thanks, Andre, for your 4th data collection for the THERMOLAB experiment during your VO2max protocol on 4/6. The THERMOLAB science team confirmed very good data and long enough cool down."
TRAC (Test of Reaction & Adaptation Capabilities): Planned.
TREADMILL KINEMATICS: "Andre, thank you for repeating the session to give us a good FOV! We're glad we were able to help with the calibration."
TRIPLELUX-B (ESA): No report.
UMS (Urine Monitoring System (NASA): No report.
VASCULAR (CSA): "No report.
VCAM (Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Module, NASA): No report.
VESSEL ID System (ESA): Issue reported on 4/6 with ERNOBOX increment counter stopped has been recovered. Confirmed that there is no data loss impact. Nominal data acquisition with the NorAIS receiver for the reporting period.
VESSEL IMAGING (ESA): No report. [Background: It is known that the ability of blood vessels to vasoconstrict - the ability of the muscular vessel wall to narrow the diameter of the blood vessel - is impaired during and after a human has been in space. "Vessel Imaging" is using the Ultrasound scanner on board the ISS to take images of the five different blood vessels in the lower abdomen and in the legs to study what changes occur to cause the blood vessels to be less able to vasoconstrict. For each vessel, a 5 second scan is performed to observe the blood vessel during several heart beats, followed by a scan where the ultrasound scan-head is tilted to allow a "cut through the blood vessel wall". The same scans are also performed before flight, and these pre-flight images are used as the baseline to which the in-flight data is compared with. The images are analyzed to detect any changes in the blood vessel wall properties, such as wall thickness, elasticity or structure, changes in the size of the blood vessel or blood flow (volume) while the crewmember is in orbit.]
VIABLE (eValuatIon And monitoring of microBiofiLms insidE the ISS Payload Touch, NASA): No report.
VO2max (NASA): "Andre, thanks to a data sharing with VO2max, you also completed a 4th dataset for the EKE experiment on 4/6."
VLE (Video Lessons ESA): No report.
WAICO #1/#2 (Waving and Coiling of Arabidopsis Roots at Different g-levels; ESA): No report.
YEAST B (ESA): No report.
YOUTUBE SpaceLab: No report.
CEO (Crew Earth Observation): Through 4/6 the ground has received 173,434 of ISS CEO frames for review and cataloguing. "We are pleased to report that we have received imagery with times corresponding to our CEO target request times as follows: Niamey, Niger - 8 frames - under review; Colombo, Sri Lanka - 8 frames - under review; Pretoria, South Africa - 121 frames - target not acquired; St. Paul Rocks islets, Brazil - 3 frames - under review; and Ascension Island, Atlantic Ocean - 12 frames - 2 sessions - under review. Thank you for your efforts to acquire our targets. Your dreamy view of Ice Floes along the Kamchatka Coastline, Russia was published on the NASA/FSFC Earth Observatory website this past weekend. You nicely framed photo in shades of white and blue beautifully illustrate this seasonal phenomenon of sea water and ice in coastal regions of the world where bitter winters slowly lose their grip. Thanks for this wonderful photo!"
CEO targets uplinked for today were Singapore (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: ISS had a late afternoon pass in fair weather with the target just right of track. Singapore is an island city-state with a population of over 5 million located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula. As ISS tracked northeastward over the big island of Sumatra, the crew was to begin looking for this city on the opposite shore), Kampala, Uganda (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: The Ugandan capital city of nearly 1.7 million is located in the south central part of the country near the north shore of Lake Victoria. ISS had a mid-afternoon pass today with partly cloudy weather expected as it approached from the SW. At this time as the crew passed Lake Victoria on their right, they were to look just right of track for this target and try for views of the entire city within a single frame), Libreville, Gabon (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: Libreville with its estimated population of nearly three quarters of a million is located on the extreme northwestern coast of Gabon. ISS had mid-afternoon pass with partly cloudy conditions expected. At this time as it approached the African coast from the SW, the crew was to begin aiming just right of track for this urban area on the north shore of the Gabon Estuary), and Yaounde, Cameroon (CAPITAL CITIES COLLECTION SITE: CERO database has neither photography nor detailed cloud-free satellite imagery of this target. However, for this mid-afternoon pass, much less than usual cloud cover may have permitted views of this capital city of one and half million. As ISS tracked northwestward from the Atlantic coast, the crew was to shoot just right of track, trying to capture this city located inland within a rolling forested area of the country).
ISS Orbit (as of this morning, 8:40am EDT [= epoch])
Mean altitude - 392.6 km
Apogee height - 397.6 km
Perigee height - 387.5 km
Period -- 92.41 min.
Inclination (to Equator) -- 51.64 deg
Eccentricity -- 0.0007451
Solar Beta Angle -- 53.5 deg (magnitude decreasing)
Orbits per 24-hr. day -- 15.58
Mean altitude loss in the last 24 hours -- 112 m
Revolutions since FGB/Zarya launch (Nov. 98) -- 76,809
Time in orbit (station) -- 4894 days
Time in orbit (crews, cum.) -- 4181 days
Significant Events Ahead (all dates Eastern Time and subject to change):
04/19/12 -- Progress M-14M/46P undock (7:03am EDT)
46P Orbital Operations
04/20/12 -- Progress M-15M/47P launch (8:50:26am EDT)
04/22/12 -- Progress M-15M/47P docking (~10:40am)
04/27/12 -- Soyuz TMA-22/28S undock (4:19am EDT)
04/27/12 -- Soyuz TMA-22/28S landing (7:45am EDT; 2:45pm DMT/Moscow) (End of Increment 30)
04/28/12 -- Progress M-14M/46P deorbit burn (6:33am EDT)
04/30/12 -- SpaceX Dragon launch (12:22pm EDT; target date)
05/15/12 -- Soyuz TMA-04M/30S launch - G.Padalka (CDR-32)/J.Acaba/S.Revin
05/17/12 -- Soyuz TMA-04M/30S docking (MRM2)
07/01/12 -- Soyuz TMA-03M/29S undock/landing (End of Increment 31)
07/15/12 -- Soyuz TMA-05M/31S launch - S.Williams (CDR-33)/Y.Malenchenko/A.Hoshide
07/17/12 -- Soyuz TMA-05M/31S docking
07/20/12 -- HTV3 launch (~10:18pm EDT)
07/31/12 -- Progress M16M/48P launch
08/02/12 -- Progress M16M/48P docking
09/17/12 -- Soyuz TMA-04M/30S undock/landing (End of Increment 32)
10/15/12 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S launch - K.Ford (CDR-34)/O.Novitskiy/E.Tarelkin
10/17/12 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S docking
11/01/12 -- Progress M-17M/49P launch
11/03/12 -- Progress M-17M/49P docking
11/12/12 -- Soyuz TMA-05M/31S undock/landing (End of Increment 33)
12/05/12 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S launch - C.Hadfield (CDR-35)/T.Mashburn/R.Romanenko
12/07/12 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S docking
12/26/12 -- Progress M-18M/50P launch
12/28/12 -- Progress M-18M/50P docking
03/19/13 -- Soyuz TMA-06M/32S undock/landing (End of Increment 34)
04/02/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S launch - P.Vinogradov (CDR-36)/C.Cassidy/A.Misurkin
04/04/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S docking
05/16/13 -- Soyuz TMA-07M/33S undock/landing (End of Increment 35)
05/29/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S launch - M.Suraev (CDR-37)/K.Nyberg/L.Parmitano
05/31/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S docking
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-08M/34S undock/landing (End of Increment 36)
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S launch - M.Hopkins/TBD (CDR-38)/TBD
09/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S docking
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-09M/35S undock/landing (End of Increment 37)
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-11M/37S launch - K.Wakata (CDR-39)/R.Mastracchio/TBD
11/xx/13 -- Soyuz TMA-11M/37S docking
03/xx/14 -- Soyuz TMA-10M/36S undock/landing (End of Increment 38)