History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

Status Report From: e-Print archive
Posted: Wednesday, February 17, 2016

Nat Gopalswamy
(Submitted on 11 Feb 2016)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently-discovered phenomenon, in 1971, some fifteen years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earth's space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.

Comments: 33 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in Geoscience Letters February 10, 2016
Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR)
Cite as: arXiv:1602.03665 [astro-ph.SR]
(or arXiv:1602.03665v1 [astro-ph.SR] for this version)
Submission history
From: Nat Gopalswamy [view email]
[v1] Thu, 11 Feb 2016 10:28:29 GMT (1280kb)

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