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    ISS Missions 1998-2006[Old]

    ISS Elements: Service Module ("Zvezda")

    The Service Module was launched aboard a Proton rocket on 12 July 2000 on mission ISS-2R. The Service Module serves as the initial living quarters for the first Expedition crews to live aboard the ISS. It also provides guidance, navigation, communication, life support, and propulsion for the entire ISS. The Service Module took over these responsibilities from the FGB which had provided these functions since its launch in November 1998. The Service Module's prime functions will eventually be supplemented or replaced by later U.S. Station components.

    The Service Module was assembled at the Krunichev State Research and Production Space Center (KhSC). It was then transfered to the Rocket Space Corporation-Energia (RSC Energia) facilities outside Moscow for pre-launch testing.

    The Service Module weighs 42,000 pounds (19,090 kg) and is 43 feet (13 meters) long from one end to the other and has a solar array that measures 97.5 feet (30 meters) tip to tip. Rocket engines in the aft end of the Service Module were used to maneuver the Service Module to its rendezvous with the ISS and, now docked, are used to provide reboost propulsion for the ISS.

    The Service Module's propulsion system is comprised of attitude control thrusters (for orienting the spacecraft - and the ISS) and orbital control thrusters (for raising the ISS' orbit). 2x16 130 N attitude thrusters work with the Service Module's gyrodynes to provide attitude control. Attitude control accuracy is 1° each axis by use of thrusters, 0.5° by use of gyrodines.

    Attitude determination is accurate to 0.5° on each axis by use of 3 star trackers (with 1 arcmin accuracy); 3 IR horizon sensors (1°); 4 solar sensors (3 arcmin); and 2 magnetometers (3°). Rate sensing by 4 gyros provides up to 0.5°/s. GPS/Glonass and receivers are used for location and velocity determination.

    The Service Module also has two large 3,070 N thrusters that are 2-axis mounted and can be gimballed 5°. The thrusters are pressure-fed from four tanks with a total capacity of 860 kg nitrogen tetroxide/unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine.

    Each of the Service Module's large solar arrays has a surface area of 38 m2. The arrays are covered with silicon photovoltaic cells which generate 9.8 kW at 31.5 Vdc (regulated odwn to 28.5 Vdc). Power is stored (for use during eclipse on the dark side of each orbit) by 8 nickel-cadmium batteries. These batteries start of with of a capacity of 110 Amp hours each and degrade to 60 Amp hours after 2 years.

    Three pressurized compartments are provided within the Service Module. A small, spherical Transfer Compartment is located at the forward end and serves as the location where docking to other modules or spacecraft occurs. This compartment can also be used as an airlock for EVAs.

    The cylindrical main Work Compartment is where the crews work and living quarters are located. A cylindrical Transfer Chamber is located at the aft end of the service module and contains one docking port for Progress and Soyuz spacecraft. The Transfer Chamber is surrounded by an unpressurized Assembly Compartment is wrapped around the exterior of the Transfer Chamber and houses propellant tanks, thrusters, and antennas.

    The Service Module has four docking ports - three at its forward end, and one at its aft end. The aft docking port is located in the aft Transfer Chamber which has a probe and cone docking mechanism to allow dockings by Progress and Soyuz spacecraft. There are three docking ports in the Service Module's Forward Transfer Compartment. One port faces forward and connects to the FGB. The other two face upward (Zenith) and downward (Nadir). Eventually the Science Power Platform (SPP) will occupy the forward zenith docking port and the Universal Docking Module (UDM)will occupy the nadir forward docking port. Currently the Nadir forward docking port is used to dock Progress spacecraft.

    The Service Module provides the initial living accommodations for the first ISS crews. Personal sleeping quarters are provided for 2 crew members. The third member of the crew "camps out" in another portion of the ISS. ISS crews - as with all other long duration space missions - will be required to exercise on a daily basis. The Service Module is equipped with a NASA-provided treadmill and a stationary bicycle.

    Zvezda is the primary source of ISS oxygen. The Servicer Module's Elektron units electrolyse water to generate up to 5.13 kg/day of oxygen. The Service Modules provides 4.5 kW heat rejection capacity so as to maintain an internal air temperature of 18-28° C. Redundant cooling loops are provided, each with 30 liters of polymethyl siloxane, and are connected with 10 external heat radiators with a total surface area of 46 m2.

    As is the case with Mir and previous Russian space stations, the Service Module has a large number of windows - 14 in all. The forward Transfer Compartment has three 9-inch diameter windows for viewing docking activities. The Working Compartment has one large 16-inch diameter window. Each crew compartment has its own window. In addition, eight other windows are provided for Earth observation and inspection of other portions of the ISS. The Expedition 1 crew made use of one of these windows in November 2000 when binoculars were used to examine the TV lens of the ISS-2P Progress M1-4 spacecraft which had fogged up with ice crystals during docking.

    The Service Module has a kitchen equipped with a refrigerator and a table. The Service Module is also equipped with a toilet and hygiene facilities. The crew's wastewater and condensation water pulled out of the cabin air will be recycled. The recycled water is then used in the Service Module's hydrolytic oxygen producing systems. It is currently not recycled for use as drinking water.

    Space walks (Extravehicular Activity - EVAs) from Russian-provided elements of the ISS will be performed using Russian Orlan-M spacesuits. EVAs performed form US portions of the ISS or the Space Shuttle will be performed using US spacesuits. EVAs can be performed from the Service Module by using the Transfer Compartment as an airlock. The Service Module will provide the data, voice, and TV communications with Mission Control in both Moscow and Houston during EVAs.

    The Data Management System (DMS) was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and an industrial consortium led by Daimler-Chrysler of Bremen, Germany. (Note: ESA supplied the DMS to Russia in return for two flight unit docking systems (no exchange of funds) for use with a later ESA element, the Automated Transfer Vehicle.)

    In addition to controlling Service Module systems, the DMS will also provide control of other Russian station elements. With the arrival of the US Lab module on ISS-5A (STS-98) the Service Module's DMS will continue to provide overall guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) for the entire ISS. After the activation of the US lab, GN&C functions will be handled by Motion Control System within the US Lab module.

    The Service Module will continue to play a role in ISS operations by providing periodic reboost propulsion for the ISS. The Service Module will also provide data to the US Lab's Motion Control System for U.S. commanding of ISS maneuvers until Global Positioning System (GPS) hardware is delivered to the ISS.

    The Service Module uses the same design used for the Core Module of Mir with modifications required for its role in the ISS. This is not at all surprising since the primary pressure hull of Service Module was built in 1985 and was slated to become the core of Mir 2 - the space station designed to replace Mir. Unlike the U.S., which tends to regularly develop and launch wholly new spacecraft designs, the Service Module is based upon a design that can be traced back though Mir and 7 successive Salyut space station predecessors, the first of which was launched in 1971.

    Echoes of the Service Module's original Mir-2 destiny lingered for quite some time after it became clear that there would not be a Mir 2. Indeed, it bore a sign on the factory floor for several years that said "Mir 2". The collapse of the Soviet Union and Russia's subsequent entry into the International Space Station program saw Mir 2 merged with the redesigned Space Station Freedom Option A. Early discussions between Russia and the ISS program included various scenarios whereby the current Mir and some of its modules would be incorporated.

    Maintenance and reliability issues with Mir, and a healthy dose of politics, led to the decision to build a wholly new spacecraft - one that did not use Mir. Mir did participate in the ISS program however - as the core of Phase 1 wherein a number of Shuttle missions docked with Mir leaving Americans behind for extended visits. Although it was not an explicit goal of Phase 1 per se, the prime result was a better understanding on both sides of how to work together - something crucial to the success of the upcoming ISS itself.

    Both the Service Module and Mir's Core Module represent not only a serial improvement in tried and true spacecraft systems, but also a significant step in capability. Unlike the Salyut series, both spacecraft were designed to serve as a hub that allows multiple modules to be docked, thus allowing the creation of a modular space station with inherent capability for growth. Once the differences in docking between Russian and American designs were overcome, the modular capabilities of the Service Module were put to good use as the core of the "Russian Segment" of the ISS.


    Operations Documents

  • Service Module Press Kit, July 2000, NASA [Acrobat]

    This document was developed in conjunction with the launch of the Service Module in July 2000.

  • Service Module Layout Drawings, NASA JSC, [Plane 1 - Adobe Acrobat] [Plane 2 - Adobe Acrobat] [Forward - Adobe Acrobat]

    These three drawings contain detailed descriptions of the external features of the Service Module and were produced for the STS-106 mission.

  • Service Module Onboard Computer System Manual Controls, 25 October 1999 [English - Acrobat]

    This 74 page document contains a detailed description of the computer system manual controls within the Service Module including the Russian laptop computer, the TORU docking system, and other control and information interfaces.

  • Service Module Docking Overview, SFOC-FL2212 Basic, Rev. A, NASA JSC [Word] [Acrobat]

    This 3 page document describes the approach and docking procedures for the Service Module and the ISS.

  • Service Module Life Support Systems, Book 1, Mission Operations Directorate, 1 October 2000[Acrobat]

    According to this document's introduction "These crew procedures contain information for the crew about procedures and rules for water supply equipment, food supply subsystem, sanitary hygiene equipment, and their schematics These crew procedures are intended for trained crew members who have completed the full training course and simulations These crew procedures may be updated pending ISS assembly, systems modification and procedure validation at simulators and training facilities". This 54 page document contains numerous graphics and diagrams describing contains detailed schematics of the Service Module's life support systems and its operations.

  • Service Module Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem, Book 2, Mission Operations Directorate, 9 October 2000[Acrobat]

    According to this document's introduction "This book contains information for the crew about procedures and rules for the atmosphere revitalization subsystem, Elektron, Vozdukh, Micropurification Unit, and Fire Detection and Suppression Subsystem operations, as well as their schematic and operation logic. This book is intended for well-trained crewpersons who have completed the full training course and simulations." This 104 page document contains numerous graphics and diagrams describing contains detailed schematics of the Service Module's life support systems and its operations.

  • Service Module Communication System, Mission Operations Directorate, 25 September 2000 [Acrobat]

    According to the document's introduction "The book contains procedures on the voice and telegraph comm system, TV system, command radio system, onboard measurement system operations, their respective schematics and operation logic The book is intended for trained crew members who have completed the full training course and simulations." This document is 116 pages long and contains detailed schematics of the Service Module's communication system (with some terminology and labels in Russian).

  • Service Module Thermal Control System, Mission Operations Directorate, 20 Sep 2000[Acrobat]

    This 53 page document covers operations and design features of the Service Module's Thermal System.

  • Service Module Power System, Mission Operations Directorate, [English -Acrobat] [Russian - Acrobat]

    This document provides "SM Power Supply System crew procedures and commands for the operation, and procedures and rules for Internal Lighting System operations. These crew procedures are intended for fully-trained crew members who have completed the whole training course and simulations. These crew procedures may be updated pending ISS assembly, systems modification and procedure validation at simulators and training facilities, and as a result of ground tests."

  • Service Module Control and Navigation Systems, Mission Operations Directorate, 25 October 1999, [English -Acrobat] [Russian - Acrobat]

    This 70 page document contains crew procedures and overall system operations for Service Module guidance, navigation, and control activites associated with normal operations, docking and undocking, and troubleshooting. It also includes a description of the operation of the reaction control and main propulsion systems. This document contains Russian laptop computer screen displays, checklists, and system schematics.

  • Service Module Video and Audio Systems, Mission Operations Directorate, [ Acrobat]

    This 40 page document describes the operations and activation of the video and audio systems in the Service Module. Included are various diagrams and schematics.

  • Inflight Maintenance - Intravehicular Activity - Installation/Deinstallation - Flight 2A.2B: SM/FGB.1, , Mission Operations Directorate, 9 August 2000 [English - Acrobat] [Russian - Acrobat]

    According to this document's introduction: "this crew procedures book covers 2A.2B Inflight Maintenance Intravehicular Activity Installation/Deinstallation Tasks and contains information for the crew on the inflight maintenance and repair operations. The book contents and presentation format are intended for fully-trained crew members." This 58 page document contains detailed procedures, diagrams, and photographs describing the installation and activation of hardware within the Service Module and the FGB.

  • Russian Segment Operations, 2A.2B Flight, Mission Operations Directorate, 10 August 2000 [English - Acrobat] [Russian - Acrobat]

    "Russian Segment Operations book contains crew procedures for RS onboard systems operation, subject to activation and subsequent deactivation during flight 2A .2B. The book is intended for fully-trained crewmembers. This document may change pending systems modification and procedure validation at simulators and training facilities. Sections from 1 to 1 3 have been developed by RSC-E, step 3.7 have been developed by NASA."

  • Integrated Russian Segment Activation/Deactivation, 20 June 2000, Mission Operations Directorate[English - Acrobat] [Russian - Acrobat]

    According to this 74 page document's introduction: "These Activation/Deactivation crew procedures contain: the flight procedures the 2R crew performs with RS onboard systems, subject to activation prior to their nominal operation; the flight procedures the 2R crew performs with RS onboard systems, subject to deactivation prior to re-docking Soyuz to another port; -the flight procedures the 2R crew performs with RS onboard systems, subject to activation after re-docking Soyuz to another port. These crew procedures are intended for trained crewmembers who have completed the full training course and simulations. These crew procedures may be updated pending ISS assembly, systems modification and procedure validation at simulators and training facilities."


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