From: House Armed Services Committee
Posted: Wednesday, June 20, 2001
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee:
It is an honor to appear before you representing the outstanding men and women of North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and United States Space Command (USSPACECOM). Over the last year, I have observed, first hand, the pride, dedication and excellence of the professionals who work in our commands. Because of them, North America enjoys freedom and security today, and the United States continues to lead the world in space. We are proud to be part of the national security team.
For 43 years NORAD has met the changing threat -transitioning from an initial "air" defense orientation to a broader aerospace dimension -one that provides surveillance and warning of ballistic missile attack and space events and ensures our air sovereignty against an expanding range of potential threats including terrorists and drug smugglers. NORAD missions remain as vital as ever and constitute a critical component of the defense of North America.
USSPACECOM, established in 1985, serves as the single point of contact for all military space operational matters. According to the Unified Command Plan, we are charged with advocating space operations and missile warning requirements for all Commanders In Chief (CINCs). We conduct space operations through the mission areas of space support, force enhancement, space control, and force application and support strategic ballistic missile defense for the United States. In addition, we are tasked to plan for and develop requirements for strategic ballistic missile defense, space-based support for tactical ballistic missile defense and space operations. In coordination with the Joint Staff and appropriate CINCs, USSPACECOM provides military representation to US national agencies, commercial, and international agencies for matters related to military space operations unless otherwise directed by the Secretary of Defense. Most recently, USSPACECOM has been identified as the military lead for DoD's computer network defense (CND) and computer network attack (CNA) missions. Ten years after the Gulf War, we see the huge advantage space brings to our warfighting capabilities. Our efforts to "operationalize" space have enabled us to move time-critical information to front-line commanders and to troops in the field. These efforts were crucial to our success during U.S. and allied air operations over Serbia. Space-based capabilities have become an integral part of our American military operations.
As our reliance on space increases, we believe more attention should be devoted to developing policies and methods that protect our access to, and use of, space. In a similar way, we must protect our critical information infrastructure to assure information superiority (our Nation's Global Information Grid) and develop appropriate strategies to exploit the vulnerabilities of our adversaries' space and computer network capabilities. To meet the unique challenges of our evolving national security environment, we must remain the world leader in space and computer network operations.
For fiscal year 2002, the President's budget includes funding to cover our most pressing priorities. However, the programs discussed in this statement and their associated funding levels and schedules may change as a result of the Secretary of Defense's strategy review, which will guide future decisions on military spending.
Our People Are Fundamental to Our Success
Execution of our National Military Strategy hinges on our ability to attract and retain high quality, motivated servicemen and women and civilian employees. Our tremendous warfighting capability depends on our people. If we take care of them, they will take care of our mission. Without them, even our most effective weapon systems are of little value. Congress' initiatives to improve military and civilian pay, health care and housing for our professionals in uniform are making a real difference. We are very grateful for your continued support in these areas. However, we still have work to do.
Our biggest challenges continue to be recruiting and retention. For USSPACECOM, recruiting is especially important as we seek a balanced mix of military and civilian talent to meet our space mission requirements and new obligations with CND and CNA. Finding this talent continues to be a difficult job as we compete with industry for people with high-demand space and information technology skills.
Compared to recruiting, the issue of retention poses an even more formidable task. Our organization is feeling the pressure that stems from the combination of a strong economy and industry's demand for the unique technical skill and work ethic found in our people. High-paying civilian jobs that offer stability and exceptional benefits continue to lure our people away from the military.
Last fall, Congress made significant progress in helping us turn the tide by authorizing targeted pay raises for our mid-career enlisted members and extending the Thrift Savings Plan to members of the Armed Services. We are most grateful for this support. To continue in the right direction, we also need to focus on developing our future space leaders and build incentives to keep them on board. Specifically, we must cultivate their talents, pique their interest, develop their core space expertise and expand their knowledge base through Joint and Service-specific professional development programs.
Finally, last year, we asked Congress to repeal the FY00 congressionally mandated 15% reduction in staff personnel at our Unified Headquarters. The FY01 National Defense Authorization Act offered some relief to this mandate by reducing the personnel cuts to 7.5%. In USSPACECOM, we remain concerned about the possibility of losing 79 billets after we have just assumed our new CND and CNA missions for national security systems. Given our current plans, as we establish the infrastructure to support our new assignments, any manpower reduction will adversely affect our ability to fulfill our unified command duties.
It is encouraging to see how our Nation's warfighting capabilities have improved over the last decade. As mentioned earlier, space systems are now integrated into virtually every aspect of our military operations and are essential to our success, whether in peace, crisis, or armed conflict. Our increasing dependence on space dictates the need to continue modernizing our space systems, which, in turn, will have a direct effect on our overall military readiness. In addition, we must leverage the benefits associated with partnerships--both within the government and with industry. Finally, we must improve the way military space is organized and managed in order to realize the full potential of our Nation's space power.
Missile Warning. For USSPACECOM, missile warning continues to be "Job 1." With the development and proliferation of theater ballistic missiles, it is clear we need the improved detection capabilities of the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) soonest. This system-of-systems will enhance our early warning and space surveillance capabilities, support future ballistic missile defense systems and provide commanders with better battlefield situational awareness.
SBIRS will serve as a combat multiplier for our Nation's military and our allies. The SBIRS High satellites will improve theater missile launch point and impact point predictions and will provide data that assists in performing missions such as real-time battle damage assessment. As for SBIRS Low, we believe the system should be designed to support and improve missile defense. However, we also believe we need to implement "smart upgrades"ˇ-supported by cost-benefit analysis--that will maximize both the SBIRS High and SBIRS Low inherent capabilities to support technical intelligence, battlespace characterization and space surveillance.
Because our theater forces are already at risk and because we expect proliferation of more accurate theater ballistic missiles, we strongly advocate SBIRS as our top priority new system. We appreciate the congressional support we have received for this very important program. We remain committed to a launch of the first SBIRS High geosynchronous orbiting satellite in fiscal year 2005, followed by the first SBIRS Low launch in 2006.
Fusion. SBIRS is the foundation of our future missile warning capabilities. However, we must not overlook the value of fusion technology. The Theater Airborne Warning System and the Enhanced Early Warning System will work in conjunction with the space-based Defense Support Program and SBIRS to provide our theater warfighters enhanced protection from theater ballistic missile attacks. These systems will fuse space and airborne infrared sensor and radar phenomenology to improve warning times dramatically and increase launch and impact point accuracy. We appreciate your continued support for these important programs.
Force Enhancement. Our force enhancement efforts over the last decade have helped us "operationalize" space. Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation satellites and our Satellite Communications (SATCOM) systems are fully integrated into the warfighting capabilities of all our Services. The readiness of our military forces depends on the modernization of these systems.
GPS has become a way of life for both our military and commercial industry around the world. As a result, we have initiated a modernization program that will provide warfighters a more robust anti-jam capability and enhance civil signals for aviation, safety-of-life services and other commercial enterprises. We appreciate Congress' continued support in sustaining and modernizing this national resource.
Reliable and secure SATCOM systems are also key to our military's state of readiness. We continue to exploit our current SATCOM fleet while developing new, technologically advanced systems. Over the past year, we worked with the other Commanders in Chief to revalidate SATCOM requirements. We reaffirmed the need to modernize our capabilities with a blend of military, civil and commercial systems. As we update our satellites, we cannot forget the user terminals. All aspects of SATCOM must be synchronized for maximum utility. We need your continued support to make this critical modernization effort a reality.
Over the past decade, a significant amount of radio frequency spectrum has been reallocated from federal use, with the DoD as the primary user, to the Federal Communications Commission for auction to the private sector. Our space systems depend upon the spectrum to perform our missions. In order to maintain our state of readiness, we need to carefully consider the national security implications of spectrum reallocations. The FY99 Defense Authorization Act restored some of the spectrum previously reallocated from Federal use. We appreciate Congress' help; however, we face continued requests for expanded non-federal civil and commercial use of this limited spectrum. For instance, there is a proposal being considered to accelerate the reallocation of the Space Ground Link Subsystem frequency, which supports our on-orbit satellite systems. If this proposal is implemented without adequate alternative spectrum for critical military functions, it will limit our ability to effectively command and control our space assets. In addition, we request careful consideration of the testing results and analyses of new wireless technologies below 3 GHz such as Ultra Wide Band (UWB) systems. We must ensure these new technologies and systems do not impact the GPS signal that is so critical to military and civil positioning, navigation and timing.
Space Support. Our space support missions focus on launching satellites and then operating and maintaining them once in orbit. The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) is our next generation launch vehicle that will provide assured access to space with quicker response and greater flexibility at a significantly reduced cost. We are pleased to report this program is on track with the first launch scheduled for 2002.
In addition to modernizing our launch vehicles, we are upgrading the ranges that support our Nation's military, civil and commercial space launches. Our Range Standardization and Automation program will standardize launch interfaces, replace obsolescent technology and help reduce operations and maintenance costs while increasing operational flexibility.
Force Protection. Members of our USSPACECOM team deploy to virtually every location where U.S. forces operate; therefore, force protection is critical. To the best of our ability, we must proactively safeguard our people and facilities by heightening awareness, continuing to conduct regular anti-terrorism training, assessing and correcting our own vulnerabilities, and finally, educating our people to be constantly on guard. We do not view force protection as a mission unto itself but inherent in all that we do.
Partnerships. With the ever-increasing demand for space support, we recognize the need to expand relationships with our "space partners" to leverage existing systems and national level expertise. USSPACECOM and the National Reconnaissance Office continue to explore the possibility of common space systems and seek new avenues to better support both the warfighter and national user. In addition, we are working with the National Imagery and Mapping Agency to develop imagery requirements and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to better predict the location of space objects and improve human spaceflight safety. Finally, through our partnerships with other agencies, we are investigating ways to collectively support our CND and CNA missions.
Similarly, we recognize the need to partner with industry. To sustain our readiness, we need to balance the advantages of commercial partnerships with the inherent risks associated with expanding our use of commercial systems. We do this by continually assessing our vulnerabilities and ensuring protected military systems are available for our most critical military missions.
Space Commission. The Commission to Assess United States National Security Space Management and Organization submitted its report in January 2001. We are pleased with the findings and believe the Commission made solid recommendations to improve the way military space is organized and managed. We concur with the Secretary of Defense's assessment of the report and are working with his staff to implement the recommendations.
Our Accomplishments in 2000
Our people remain focused and continue to accomplish the mission despite our high operations tempo. In calendar year 2000, our space wings successfully executed 27 launches and deployed all payloads to their respective orbits for a 100% success rate. In addition, we recently activated two new squadrons with space control missions. We have made significant strides in establishing the framework for our CND and CNA missions and have conducted several space and information operations-based exercises to demonstrate our adversaries' capabilities and to identify our own vulnerabilities. The following provides a more detailed description of our activities during the past year:
Space Control. Our people need to train as they fight. To ensure our forces are fully prepared to defend against attacks on our space-based infrastructure, we have recently activated two new squadrons--the 527th Space Aggressor Squadron and the 76th Space Control Squadron. The 527th Space Aggressor Squadron's mission is to replicate the known capabilities of potential adversaries and play the role of the "red team" in exercises like Schriever 2001. The 76th Space Control Squadron's charter is to explore future space control technologies by testing models and prototypes of counterspace systems with the goal of rapidly achieving space superiority.
Computer Network Defense and Computer Network Attack. The threat to DoD computer networks and systems continues to grow. If used properly, a cyber attack offers less militarily capable nations an asymmetric means to degrade the effectiveness of our military forces. As a result, protecting our critical information infrastructure (the Global Information Grid) continues to be USSPACECOM's main focus in the cyber arena.
We are working hard to normalize our CND mission. We established a command and control structure, initiated efforts to improve the dissemination of critical CND information and established reporting and tracking procedures for protecting and defending critical national security information systems (the Global Information Grid.) Our challenge is to stay ahead of evolving threats to our computer networks, keep abreast of rapidly changing technology and continue coordinating closely with other government agencies.
On 1 October 2000, the Unified Command Plan designated USSPACECOM the "military lead" for DoD's CNA activities. Our initial focus has been on the development of a CNA concept of operations that addresses the process needed to integrate CNA capabilities into existing operation and contingency plans. Our challenge is two-fold. First, we must understand the CNA needs of the other CINCs and determine the best way to address them. Second, we need to continue developing CNA strategies through simulations and wargaming to improve our understanding of the potential collateral effects associated with such actions.
On 2 April 2001, we transitioned our CND and CNA missions to an organizational construct we call the Joint Task Force for Computer Network Operations (JTF-CNO). Combining our newest missions under a single operational commander enables unity of command and effort. In addition, the JTF-CNO makes more efficient use of available resources, eases coordination with the intelligence community and other partners and establishes a clear cross-agency coordination process. We see the JTF-CNO as a "pathfinder" organization that will adapt to changing threats and to the expansion of its mission perimeters.
Space, Information Operations and Missile Defense Exercises. Over the past year, we have continued to focus on integrating space and information-based capabilities into Service and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff-sponsored exercises and experiments. Last year's Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration showed how space has become a fundamental part of our business. Space-based capabilities are not a luxury anymore; they are now integral to military operations.
In December 2000, we co-sponsored, with the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, another of our annual Ballistic Missile Defense of North America Command and Control Simulations (C2 Sims) primarily to refine and validate our Concept of Operations. This was the first C2 Sim where we investigated the integration and interoperability of the offensive and defensive missions. We found the C2 Sim to be very valuable and are working to expand the involvement of CINCs to capitalize on relationships between these missions so we can ultimately execute them in a synergistic fashion.
In 2001, Army Space Command supported an exercise to vet space contributions to the overall Army Transformation wargame and Air Force Space Command sponsored Schriever 2001, the first-ever Air Force wargame dedicated to space. The Schriever 2001 wargame explored space warfare issues and investigated the military utility of our future space systems. The preliminary analysis of the results reinforced several key points we have known for some time: a robust "blue" space capability serves as an effective deterrent; the "blue" team is very dependent on space and, as a result, is potentially vulnerable to "red" counterspace actions; and finally, commercial space serves as a powerful force multiplier.
Our Way Ahead
As we prepare for an uncertain future, we must focus our attention on protecting and advancing our interests in space and information-based operations or run the very real risk of a "Space Pearl Harbor" or another "Sputnik" that catches us off-guard and unprepared.
Space Control. Since the activation of U. S. Space Command in 1985, we have focussed on integrating space with warfighting: bringing space to the warfighter. Setting our "integration throttle" at maximum has served us well. Today, nearly every endeavor across the spectrum of military operations utilizes space to succeed.
However, our reliance upon space has become a vulnerability. Potential adversaries are watching and responding. They see space as an asymmetric method for leveling the playing field. Not only are threats emerging on a daily basis, but cheap access to advanced commercial space services continues to chip away at our information superiority edge.
Therefore, it is time to push up the "space superiority throttle." We have left this throttle at idle for too long. The reasons range from resources and technological maturity to legal and policy limitations; but the time has come. We must prepare now to ensure our continued access to space, to deny space to others, if necessary, and help assure the continued use of space for the Nation's $60B commercial investment.
Space is important enough to warrant a significant investmentˇ-it is not just a higher hill. This is a medium crucial to our American military operations and one we'll have to fight for in the future.
Space-Based Laser. The Space Based Laser (SBL) could provide worldwide, continuous, boost-phase intercept across a wide range of ballistic missile defense scenarios. Warfighting CINCs recognize SBL's inherent capability to support other DoD missions such as air defense, global surveillance, space control and target detection. We must continue to pursue the technologies associated with systems like the SBL. The mere fact that the United States is developing means to employ force in space may serve as a significant deterrent.
Space-Based Radar. Space-Based Radar (SBR) is a force enhancement system we must explore. The requirement for SBR capability remains high. Our national and military strategies are based on global engagement. As such, our military operations require the day, night, and all weather broad-area surveillance capabilities this system could offer. We were moving forward with an SBR demonstration system, Discoverer II, until it was terminated last fall. In response to the FY01 DoD Authorization Conference Report, the National Security Space Architect is leading a multi-service, multi-agency effort to develop an SBR Roadmap, which brings together requirements for both the DoD and national users. As part of the Roadmap development, we are heavily involved in an analysis of alternatives that will allow the DoD leadership to make SBR decisions in concert with decisions being made on other intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems.
Computer Network Defense and Computer Network Attack. We will continue to facilitate and lead the DoD-wide effort for CND and CNA. We intend to fully integrate these options into all military plans and operations, focusing on positive command and control, integrated planning and deconfliction, fully coordinated intelligence support and execution of assigned missions.
Ballistic Missile Defense. With the proliferation of missile technology, one of our primary concerns is the threat of strategic ballistic missiles. A defensive capability is required to protect North America. As part of our unified command responsibilities for ballistic missile defense, we continue our work to establish clear system requirements and develop the necessary procedures and command and control options for an operational capability.
I assure you, NORAD and USSPACECOM are prepared to provide aerospace defense to the people of North America and space support to U.S. and allied armed forces. We have successfully integrated space capabilities and computer network defense and attack into all aspects of our military tactics and continue to find new ways to improve our warfighting capabilities. As we develop our next generation systems, we must invest the necessary resources and intellectual capital to protect our vital interests and sustain our lead in space. We appreciate Congress' continued support to maintain our high state of readiness. With your help, we will ensure space forces play a key role in our Nation's future defense.
Again, I am honored to appear before you and look forward to your questions.
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