Astronomers have been puzzled for decades as to how the rings of hot gas surrounding certain types of star are formed. Now a team of scientists from the Universities of Glasgow and Wisconsin believe they have found the answer. The team studied a type of young, hot star, known as a "Be star", that has a disk of glowing gas around it, similar to the rings surrounding Saturn. Until now, no one has been able to account for how these rings form but in a paper published this month*, the team suggest an answer.
The gas ring surrounding a Be Star may appear and then disappear, possibly reforming at a later time. Material in the disk is attracted back towards the star by the pull of gravity, but if it has enough energy it can escape into space, contributing to the stellar wind.
The new theory reveals why this material is held in a disk at some distance from the star instead of either being pulled closer or flying away into space. Deborah Telfer of Glasgow University explains "Our model relies on the existence of a magnetic field around Be stars producing a 'Magnetically Torqued Disk'. Magnetic field lines channel stellar wind material leaving the surface of the star down towards the equatorial plane. A disk then forms in the region where particles have sufficient angular velocity to balance gravity. In the outer regions, the weaker magnetic field lines should burst open allowing particles to form part of the general stellar wind."
Previously, the Wind Compressed Disk Model (Bjorkman and Cassinelli, 1993) was regarded as one of the most successful explanations of circumstellar disks. However, it predicts disks that are out-flowing (i.e. the material moves from the star to the disk and then away into space) and expanding. Yet Be stars are observed to have circumstellar Keplerian disks, meaning that the disks are supported against gravity by rotation rather than gas or radiation pressure. Deborah has been working with Joseph Cassinelli of Wisconsin on the new model for Be star disks and they are delighted at the success of their results.
These suggest that only a narrow range of types of star would form a detectable Magnetically Torqued Disk and be seen as Be stars. Heavier stars would require an unreasonably large magnetic field while lighter stars would produce disks too small to be detected. More work is needed to explain every aspect of observational evidence but we may finally be reaching an understanding of what produces these Saturn-like stars.
Notes for Editors
* This work appeared in the Astrophysical Journal, October 20th 2002, "A Magnetically Torqued Disk Model for Be Stars"
Authors: J. P. Cassinelli (University of Wisconsin-Madison), J. C. Brown (University of Glasgow), M. Maheswaran(University of Wisconsin), N. A. Miller((University of Wisconsin) and D. C. Telfer (University of Glasgow)
Images available from Julia Maddock (contact details below)
Taken from the perspective of one of the Hubble Space Telescope observations of Phi Persei, this artist's depiction provides a taste of the double- star system's unstable existence. The bright "Be" star - a type of hot star with a broad, flattened disk - is the white, semicircular object looming in the upper right of the illustration. The red, pancake-shaped object surrounding the star is a gas disk. The small, hot subdwarf is in the lower left of the illustration. The blasts of white light represent particles of material - called a stellar wind - being released by the star. The red ring of material surrounding the subdwarf was probably formed from the "Be" star's outflow of gas. The subdwarf is moving toward the right in its 126-day orbit around the "Be" star.
Illustration copyright of Bill Pounds
Deborah is in the final year of her Ph.D. in stellar physics at Glasgow University. She started contributing to research by undertaking an RSE Cormack vacation scholarship while in her second year of undergraduate study at Glasgow.
Dept of Physics & Astronomy
University of Glasgow
Tel: + 44 (0) 141 330 5182
Dept of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison,
475 N. Charter St.
Madison WI 53706
Tel: +1 608 263 4622
PPARC Press Office
Tel: +44 (0) 1793 442094
The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) is the UK's strategic science investment agency. It funds research, education and public understanding in four areas of science - particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science.
PPARC is government funded and provides research grants and studentships to scientists in British universities, gives researchers access to world-class facilities and funds the UK membership of international bodies such as the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Space Agency. It also contributes money for the UK telescopes overseas on La Palma, Hawaii, Australia and in Chile, the UK Astronomy Technology Centre at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and the MERLIN/VLBI National Facility, which includes the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank observatory.
PPARC's Public Understanding of Science and Technology Awards Scheme funds both small local projects and national initiatives aimed at improving public understanding of its areas of science.